Methods and rules for grafting fruit plants

Methods and rules for grafting fruit plants

Read the previous part: Grafting of fruit and ornamental plants

An apple from an apple-tree variety Vnuchkino, which I managed to create in my garden

In order to engage in vaccinations, you should acquire the appropriate tools and "dressings". We will not yet analyze special cases when especially large branches or, conversely, thin cuttings and seedlings are grafted.

With conventional vaccinations, the entire set of tools consists of a pruner, copulation and budding knives, a gardening knife for stripping (which can be easily replaced with any sharp knife, if only it is convenient to use) and a good, smallest donkey, which in the process of work takes time time to touch up the knives.


Grafting knives

The main condition is that the knives must be sharpened to the sharpness of a razor. And the most important tool is the gardener's hands. If you have never been vaccinated, or there is a need to learn a new method, then it makes sense to practice on any branches that can be cut in the garden or in the forest. You will also need garden var and strapping material.

Every gardener has his own preferences. I make the strapping elastic (sometimes rough) with electrical tape (sticky side out). You can use scotch tape, plastic tapes, and more. The var must be flexible enough to be used in the cold, but not so liquid that it flows like water at + 20 ° C.

Pear Lada. Vaccination on mountain ash in the spring of 2005. A rowan branch is visible below the inoculation site.

All vaccinations can be divided into two types - budding, or peephole (kidney) grafting and grafting. The third type of grafting - ablation, or rapprochement grafting, is used extremely rarely (due to the duration of the process), and it may well be attributed to the second type of grafting, since not a single kidney is grafted, but a part of the plant.

As mentioned above, budding is a grafting with a bud, which is transferred from one plant to another with a "shield" - a thin layer of wood or even just bark. If the grafting is done as part of a branch with one bud, then this is no longer budding, but grafting with a cutting.

There are few ways of budding - this is an inoculation in a T-shaped incision, an inoculation in the butt (with a shield), a kidney inoculation with a kidney. Budding is the most common method of grafting in nurseries, since with a fairly simple technology it allows the maximum use of the grafting material - after all, a new plant is obtained from each bud.

Hawthorn grafted onto mountain ash for bark in spring 2010. If the stalk grafted from the opposite side of the trunk had survived, then the entire cut would have already been overgrown.

Virtually all other vaccinations are referred to as grafting. A stalk is any part of a plant, from a piece of an annual shoot with one bud to a branch with branches and fruit buds.

In principle, the crown of a young tree with a stem and skeletal branches is also a cuttings if you graft it on another plant (which is quite possible when using a grafting method appropriate to the scale of the operation).

The technique of performing budding

Cutout for budding:
1 - the line of movement of the knife;
2 - cut-off line of the flap;
3 - cutting the flap

Let's start with budding. In our region, it is best carried out in late July - early August. Specifically, it is impossible to specify the timing of vaccination, like any procedure related to plant care, since everything depends on the weather.

It is much more correct to focus not on the days of the month and not on the "lunar calendar", but on the phenological phases of plant development. For budding, as for some other grafting methods, the determining factor is the period of active sap flow, when the bark is easily separated from the wood. Here, in the Leningrad region, this period usually begins at the end of July. In years with unfavorable weather conditions, the beginning of autumn sap flow can be stimulated by frequent and abundant watering.

T-cut and flap insert

Rootstocks suitable for budding should be considered those that have given good growth during the season, which indicates good development of the root system, and have reached a thickness at which it is convenient to work. As stated (and rightly so) in all vaccination guidelines, this is "pencil thickness." It is possible both thicker and thinner - if only the shield with the kidney fits and it is convenient to work.

It is better to take cuttings for grafting with well-developed buds from shoots of medium growth (in no case should you use "spinning tops"), and, of course, those whose removal will not spoil the crown of your tree. The top with poorly developed buds and leaf blades are removed from the cutting, leaving the petioles, which will help with work and will be a "barometer" indicating the survival of the kidney.

Before grafting, the rootstocks should be well watered, uncooked, cut off the side branches (if any) in the lower part, wipe them with a damp cloth. In the place intended for grafting, a cross-section of the bark is made (without damaging the wood), a longitudinal cut about 3 cm long is made perpendicular to it. By turning the blade, the corners of the bark are separated from the wood. Then the bark is separated from the wood with the bone of the grafting knife along the entire length of the cut.

The next operation is to separate the flap. About 1.5-2 cm below the kidney, a transverse incision is made in the bark. Above the kidney, also at a distance of 1.5-2 cm, the cut of the flap begins. The knife is led smoothly, from top to bottom, trying to make the width of the shield approximately equal (or slightly wider) to the kidney, and the layer of wood as thin as possible. Taking the shield carefully by the leaf petiole, it is inserted from top to bottom into a T-shaped incision. If the upper part of the shield protrudes above the cross-section, it is carefully cut. The scutellum should fit snugly against the cambium layer under the bark.

Pear Lada on a mountain ash. Vaccination 2006. The influx at the grafting site is clearly visible, indicating the incomplete compatibility of the scion and the rootstock, and the rowan branch left on the rootstock. ">

Now you can start strapping. To do this, I use an elastic duct tape cut in half (widthwise). Bottom up, sticky side out, loop by loop, leaving the bud open. That's all. After 1.5-2 weeks, you can check whether the vaccination was successful. If, with a light touch, our "barometer" - the leaf petiole, separates from the bud, then everything is in order.

If not, the grafting can be repeated elsewhere, or the stock can be left until spring. This method is called budding with a sleeping eye, since it starts to grow only in the spring of next year. In the spring, budding can be done with a sprouting eye - everything is the same there, except that there is no leaf petiole, which is so convenient to grasp. The shield has to be inserted into the incision directly from the knife.

Budgeting in the butt

It is even easier to make budding in the butt. Its advantage is that it can be carried out earlier and later than the time of active sap flow. A transverse incision is made on the stock at a slight angle. Then a strip of bark is removed from top to bottom towards the cut. A plate of wood with a bud is removed from the cutting and applied to the cut on the rootstock. Naturally, the size of the plate should correspond to the size of the cut on the rootstock. Then the strapping is done.

Inoculation by cuttings

The second of the main types of grafting is grafting. There are many ways of grafting with a graft, but they are all variations of the ones listed below:
- Copulation.
- Into the cleft.
- In the side cut
- For the bark.

Read more about these types of vaccinations in the article Types of grafts for fruit and ornamental trees

It should be said separately about the timing in which vaccinations can be done. Literally in all articles and books devoted to vaccinations, they write that the best dates are in the spring, during the period of active sap flow. As for grafting for the bark, which requires inserting the stalk between the bark and the wood, and grafting into the side cut, this is indeed the case. But copulation and grafting into cleavage can be done almost at any time of the year.

Under my kitchen window is growing a pear "Lada" in the form of a U-shaped cordon, grafted onto a mountain ash on 01.01.2004. I took off the first fruits from her in 2006, and since then every year she gives us 5-6 kilograms of beautiful fruits. Inoculations on mountain ash, made by cuttings taken from flowering hawthorn in mid-June, were also successful. And grafting in early July with cuttings taken from the base of an annual shoot of an apple tree (semi-lignified).

Getting vaccinated is only half the battle. Now you need to take care of her. The two biggest dangers to a well-done graft are regrowth on the rootstock in the immediate vicinity of the graft of its own shoots and the cutting of the strapping material when the grafted shoot thickens. Therefore, you need to regularly, at least once a week, check the condition of the grafted plants.

Own shoots can appear simultaneously with the beginning of the growth of the graft and even earlier. Therefore, all buds that have hatched on the rootstock directly under the graft should be plucked out immediately. If the grafting is done in the crown, on a well-growing branch, in order to avoid exposing it, the shoots located below the grafting are pinched, thus turning them into fruit.

And when grafted onto young seedlings, all shoots on the stock should be removed as early as possible. The second danger is the cutting of the strapping material when the vaccination site is thickened. To prevent this from happening, it is usually enough to loosen the harness once a summer, around the end of June - July. I prefer to completely remove the harness next spring.

Vasily Khrabrov, gardener,
Old Peterhof

Read also:
• Grafting of one type of plant to another
• February vaccinations
• How to grow rootstocks of fruit crops for an amateur gardener
• Root and wild grafting. Propagation by root cuttings

What types of vaccinations are there

For example, for thin rootstocks, it is more suitable copulation, or grafting by cutting. In the case of limited varietal grafting material, to obtain a larger number of seedlings, use budding, or a kidney vaccine. If you want to plant a relatively thick branch or, for some reason, a stump remains from a 2-3-year-old seedling, then use the method cleft inoculationsor per bark... Bark grafting is also used to restore trees whose bark has been gnawed by mice or hares. In this situation, a special case of grafting for the bark is used - bridging.


Self-cooking garden var

For cooking garden var take the following ingredients:

  • Rosin - 4 parts.
  • Beeswax - 2 parts.
  • Lamb fat - 1 part.

Place all ingredients in a small vessel and place over low heat. Remember to stir the mixture while melting. When the mixture is completely melted, it can be removed from the heat. As you can imagine, the cooking process is very simple.

Garden var is a very valuable product. It is used by experienced gardeners to isolate wounds from harmful bacteria and contamination.


Graft- a method of combining plants (their parts) to obtain a single organism, transferring a cuttings or buds of one plant to another for splicing them together. The part to which they are grafted is called stock, and the one from which the cutting is taken - graft.

Vaccination in the butt (copulation) - a simple method of grafting, it is used when the diameter of the rootstock and the scion are the same. If you want to get seedlings ready for planting by the fall of next year, the best way to winter grafting is improved copulation "with tongue", when for greater strength of the connection on the oblique cuts of the scion and rootstock, splits are made to form tongues, so that when the components are connected, they go over each other. Everyone can master this procedure, believe me, there is nothing mysterious or complicated in it.


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