Features and origin of pepper
Bulgarian or Bell pepper, as gardeners call it - in almost every vegetable garden you can see small, slender bushes, with "peppers" hanging closer to the ripening period. The fruits are sometimes painted in such bright colors that they just ask for a sunny salad.
Sweet pepper can be called a real friend of man, because he has been with us, one way or another, for more than ten thousand years. It is now impossible to establish exactly where the pepper came from, but it is safe to say that he is a real honorary citizen of three countries - Mexico, Guatemala and the United States. Pepper loves warmth and an abundance of light, he loves to bask in the sun, but in our area it succeeds very well.
How did he get to our continent? It was not so long ago, about 500 years ago. Pepper got in with merchant ships sailing through Portugal and Spain to Turkey, where it quickly gained popularity. Already from Turkey, an outlandish vegetable came to Bulgaria and became Bulgarian forever. It seems that it is to the Bulgarians that we owe the fact that the pepper gains weight, ripens and jumps to us in salads, pickles, as a seasoning in soups and many other dishes, and also serves as a medicine that helps to better digest food and normalize metabolism. That is why even high consumption rates of pepper will not cause any weight gain.
Pepper is apparently akin to potatoes, onions, garlic, tomatoes and cucumbers, the demand for these crops does not fade away and, it seems, will never fade away. Of course, industrial plantings, which ensure the flow of products to different parts of our country, are concentrated exclusively in the southern regions of Russia, as well as in Ukraine and Moldova.
Consuming pepper, growing it on our own site, or simply purchasing it on the market, or in a supermarket, we no longer even think about the fact that once in Russia this culture simply did not know, and even earlier did not perceive pepper as food in others. corners of the planet. Initially, they used it exclusively as a medicine, they tried to treat it or the juice of unripe fruits for a variety of diseases, up to asthma. But he only helped well against colds, because there is much more vitamin C in it than in the usual medicine for acute respiratory infections - lemon.
By its nature and in warmer climates, sweet pepper is a perennial culture, but in our country it dies with the arrival of winter. And only by sowing seeds, next year, we renew it in our garden.
In the wild (this is probably an interesting sight) sweet pepper grows in the tropics of America, sometimes occupying large territories. There you can also find a large number of its various species, of which not all have been chosen and introduced into culture, but only a few - peppers, Peruvian, Colombian, and also Mexican, which we are used to seeing on our table.
Sweet peppers do not require pollinators, they form large fruits, which are more correctly called berries. These miracle berries come in such a variety of colors that it is possible to list all the colors for a very long time, while the colors that are more familiar to us are red, orange, green and yellow. All fruits, regardless of color and shape, contain a large amount of biologically active substances, vitamins, mineral compounds, as well as organic acids and sugars.
So that the fruits have time to ripen and collect all the substances necessary for us and the plant, grow sweet peppers need through seedlings. Seedlings should be planted in the smoothest, lightest, well-heated place with loose and nutritious soil... The fruits will grow and ripen completely only if the temperature during this period does not drop below + 18 ° C degrees. In conditions of high humidity and low above-zero temperatures, the plants seem to plunge into lethargic sleep, stop growth and can even lose the ovary.
Pepper is thermophilic and is afraid of frost, so do not rush to plant its seedlings, wait until there is no danger of return frosts at all, but small frost is not terrible for adult plants, they can also tolerate zero temperature.
Over the years of cultural cultivation of pepper, breeders of all countries have created a considerable number of varieties, but it is best to use proven, domestic cultivars that are zoned and can grow without problems in our climate. There are also a lot of them, and from a fairly large variety, the most interesting
The first on our list will be Alyosha Popovich - this is a mid-season variety, the fruits of which will be on your table three months after sowing the seeds. As befits the name, the plant is very large and gives large fruits, the average weight of such a berry is not less than 200 g. The fruits are juicy, thick-walled with a skin invisible even when cooking. Ripe fruits are red, but those that have reached technical ripeness are light green.
Due to the solid size of the bush, a planting scheme of about 50 by 20 cm is recommended for this variety.Of the undoubted advantages of the variety, it is possible to single out undemanding support and formations, high yield, often exceeding five kilograms per square meter, as well as resistance to verticillosis.
The next variety, which ripens about a week earlier, is Belozerka. It is less tall and more compact, does not have a pronounced trunk. The variety forms cone-shaped, triangular fruits of white-cream color in technical ripeness and bright red in biological ripeness. The fruits are smaller, their weight is slightly more than 100 g, however, in terms of wall thickness, juiciness and taste, they are in no way inferior to the previous variety. Among the advantages of the variety, one can distinguish a pleasant aroma of ripe fruits, resistance to mosaic, alternaria and verticillosis, as well as a very good yield, often exceeding 5 kg per square meter.
The variety with the pleasant name Snow White fell in love with gardeners due to its ripening time. The fruits are ready for harvest already three months after sowing the seeds, and if the variety is grown in a greenhouse for which it is more adapted, then this period can be reduced by another couple of weeks. The small disadvantages of the variety include the need for shaping, which consists in breaking out all lateral shoots and leaves located below the first fork. The positive qualities of the cultivar include the fact that it forms compact plants, slightly closed, low (45-50 cm).
Fully ripe fruits have a triangular shape, smooth surface and light color, but when the seeds are fully ripe, the fruits turn red. In biological ripeness, they have a length of about 15 cm and a wall thickness of just over a centimeter, and a mass of about 100 g.
The fruits of this variety are amazing fresh as a high-vitamin product, they are also suitable for all types of processing. The optimal planting scheme for this variety is 40 by 50-60 cm. Plants planted according to this scheme can produce more than 7 kg of fruit per square meter of the garden. In addition to the already named hits of sales, other cultivars are also in demand: Bonus, Bogatyr, Victoria, Vesper, Dobrynya Nikitich, Yellow Bouquet, Ilya Muromets and a new very high-yielding variety Zdorov'e.
Is the agrotechnology of growing pepper difficult? Not at all, you can even say that it is extremely simple, but you shouldn't miss important points. The most important of them, which should be the first on the list, is the time for sowing seeds to obtain seedlings. The main thing here is not to rush, but also not to delay - the optimal time during which the seedlings should develop is two months or 60 days, so you need to sow the seeds around the end of February - early March.
Before sowing, the seeds should be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which is soaked in a gauze cloth or bandage. As soon as the seeds hatch, they must be sown in the ground. It is best to use not common large boxes, but individual cups, and not plastic, but paper ones, because it is easier to break them and get the seedlings with a lump of earth without damaging the root system.
For growing seedlings, you can also use special peat cups. You can not extract the seedlings from them, but immerse the glass with it in the soil, it then completely dissolves and serves as additional food. The soil in which the seeds are sown also serves as food, so it must be optimally selected. The best option is a soil consisting of peat and ordinary earth in equal proportions. You can cook it yourself, or you can buy it at the store.
Before filling the glass with soil, make a hole in its bottom; an awl heated on a flame is best for this. So you can make holes in not just one, but a dozen cups stacked together. If this is not done, then the roots from excess moisture, which simply has nowhere to go, can rot.
Before sowing seeds, which, by the way, are best sown two at a time, the soil must be shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate
After the soil is added to the cups and the seeds are sown in it, they must be placed in a bright and warm place, a window sill can become it. It can accommodate such an amount of seedlings, which is enough for planting on a hundred square meters of land.
To ensure good initial seed growth, it is better to cover the cups with foil, which must be removed as soon as the sprouts appear above the soil surface.
In order for the plants to feel good there, they need to be provided with moisture. When growing peppers, you need to be very careful with its amount, because excess moisture can lead to the appearance of a black leg - a dangerous and destructive disease for seedlings. Water the plants sparingly, only with warm water and so that the earthen lump is slightly moist, but not overdried.
A week after sprouting, the seedlings will become more robust and can be rearranged on the table, which should be placed by the window. At this place, it can be left until the period when it will be necessary to transplant the pepper into the ground. In the process of growth, seedlings can be fed. For this, dissolved in water are suitable mineral fertilizers, the main thing here is not to feed the plants often, otherwise, when they are planted in the ground, they will get used to new, more modest conditions for a long time.
It is also necessary to plant seedlings correctly. Here, special attention must be paid to the root collar: it should not be buried, it should be located at the level of the soil, as it grew in a glass.
As for the planting scheme, it depends entirely on the varietal characteristics of the crop and is often indicated on the seed packaging. It is impossible to neglect the recommendations of professionals and thicken the plantings, this will only lead to a decrease in the yield and the mass of fruits. All further care is simple, it consists in periodic loosening of the soil, combating weeds, in the evening watering the plants with warm water and several dressings (usually two) with liquid mineral fertilizers.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina,
member of the R&D Academy
Photo by E. Valentinov
Exceptionally cold-resistant varieties are suitable for open field cultivation in the central part of Russia. But any kind of pepper can be grown in the greenhouse... Protected soil allows you to create optimal conditions for even the most fastidious crops.
What varieties and hybrids most commonly grown in greenhouses and greenhouses:
- California miracle. The main feature is large-fruited. The mass of individual specimens reaches 500 g. The thickness of the walls is 12 mm.
- Black cardinal... Differs in an unusual dark purple fruit color. During the ripening period, they acquire a red tint. The bush reaches 1 m in height.
- Yova... Differs in high yield (up to 15 kg per 1 sq. M). Thick-walled Bulgarian pepper.
- Claudio. Mid-season. Dark red long fruits reach a weight of 250 g. It is immune to the main diseases of the nightshade. The bush reaches a height of 1.3 m.
- Atlant. The main feature is the short stature of the bush (up to 70 cm). Bulgarian pepper, thick walled and sweet taste.
- Denis. Early. The main stem grows in height no higher than 60 cm.The weight of each fruit reaches 300 g.
The described varieties give the best yield indicators. it is in the greenhouse.
Advantages of the variety
The main advantages of the Bogatyr pepper variety include:
- high keeping quality (not less than 97%)
bushes of this variety do not require special intensive care
great taste and presentation
during heat treatment does not lose its useful qualities
Of the shortcomings of the Bogatyr pepper variety, it should be noted:
- bushes are often affected by pests
Bell pepper care
The process of growing bell peppers in the open field is no less important than working with seedlings. If you take it responsibly, then in the fall, small bushes will delight you with a rich multi-colored harvest. Caring for bell peppers includes regular watering, weeding, loosening the soil, feeding and picking fruits to the extent of their ripeness. The pepper is planted according to the 40 cm by 40 cm scheme. Such thickened plantings are characteristic of this plant and have a beneficial effect on its growth.
Pepper is not only a thermophilic plant, but a big drinker. Water the plant with warm water in the evening. On hot days, daily watering will not be superfluous.
Once a week, after abundant watering, the plants are fed with organic fertilizers. Trace elements can be added no more than once every two weeks.
Growing sweet bell peppers in a greenhouse is no different than growing them outdoors. The only difference is that tall varieties are also suitable for greenhouses, which require a garter or support. In the greenhouse, the pepper feels more comfortable, as it loves warmth and moisture.
The best varieties of sweet peppers for the Urals
Adding an article to a new collection
Bell peppers can be successfully grown in the Urals, and not only in a greenhouse, but also in the open field. But for this you need to choose the right variety. Which one - find out from our article.
When growing sweet peppers in the Urals, it is better to use the seedling method and plant the plants in a greenhouse. But many experienced gardeners grow early maturing varieties in the open field and reap a good harvest. How do they do it?
When choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account not only the ripening period, but also winter hardiness, and the light zone. Many varieties listed in the register are only theoretically suitable for growing in the unstable climate of the Urals, but in fact, during the short and cold summer, the pepper simply does not have time to ripen.
We have prepared for you a list of sweet pepper varieties that are best suited for growing in the Urals.
When growing peppers in greenhouse conditions, a good, rich harvest is important to us. But in order for the pepper to really please with a luxurious offspring, it needs good care.
Pepper growing conditions will be ideal with proper soil preparation.
The greenhouse should be equipped with a fertile topsoil. It can be taken from the garden plot (where carrots, zucchini, pumpkin, onions, cabbage grew).
- Collect precious earth and transport it to the greenhouse. It is better to remove all old soil from the greenhouse (in order to prevent infection of the pepper with infections).We will load the soil into the greenhouse in the fall and add humus or compost to it (5-6 kg per m²).
Such methods improve the composition of the soil and increase its aeration (the ability to retain moisture).
Pepper is a demanding crop for the soil, the plant needs fertile, soft and loose soil.
Therefore, the beds for the pepper should be dug deeply (to a depth of 10-12 cm).
Before planting, we add the following fertilizers to the ground:
- Nitrogen 30-35 g / m².
- Potash 40-50 g / m².
- Phosphoric 30-40 g / m².
- Organic matter (compost, humus) bucket / m².
Experienced gardeners have noticed that the richest harvest is obtained when growing peppers in a film-type greenhouse, and even the color of the film affects the number of fruits (the more transparent it is, the greater the yield).
Know! Sweet peppers do not respect and are afraid of acidified soil. Therefore, in the fall, add dolomite flour to the soil (2 tbsp. L. For each m²).
Planting pepper in a greenhouse is not such a difficult operation as when planting it in open garden conditions, but some rules must be strictly observed.