Cherry varieties Vladimirskaya has been popular for many centuries, and not only among amateur gardeners. It is also grown on an industrial scale. The variety belongs to the old Russians, which makes its presence in the garden not only useful, but also pleasant: how not to boast of a retro legend in front of your neighbors!
The name of Vladimirskaya cherry is associated with the name of the city of Vladimir. It is believed that the first specimens appeared there from the 7th to the 12th century thanks to the monks who brought seedlings from Greece. According to another version, the tree was brought from Kiev by Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky, who laid the Patriarchal Garden. In the 19th century, the city of Vladimir was famous throughout Russia for its cherry orchards, the number of which reached 400.
Five varieties of Vladimir cherry grew in the Patriarch's Garden: Poditeleva, Saika, Levinka, Bel and the famous Vasilievskaya cherry, as well as pears, apple trees and other fruit and berry crops.
Today Vladimirskaya cherry is one of the symbols of the city. At the entrance to the famous Patriarch's Garden, there is a monument to the berry in the form of granite fruits with bronze twigs.
A monument to Vladimir cherry was erected at the entrance to the Patriarchal Garden in Vladimir
The variety was released in 1947 and has been popular among gardeners ever since.
The basis of the garden was made up of cherry trees, mainly Vladimirskaya cherry
Description of the variety
The bushy tree reaches up to 5 m in height. Own-rooted cherry forms a bush. The crown is spherical, weakly leafy, its skeletal branches drooping, raised at an angle of 60 °. Leaves in the shape of an ellipse have a pointed tip, their edge is double-serrate (like serrate, but with additional smaller teeth). Leaf length - 8 cm, width - 3 cm, color - dark green.
Adult Vladimirskaya cherry reaches 5 m in height
Flowering begins in May. It takes about 2 months (60 days) before the berries ripen. Medium-sized buds are collected in inflorescences of 5-7 pieces.
Own-rooted Vladimirskaya cherry belongs to bush varieties
The berries have a black-red hue, the seeds are small. The size of the fruits is medium and depends on the conditions (they can be small). The taste of berries is sweet and sour, harmonious. Gastronomically valuable, dessert variety is one of the most delicious: good both fresh and for all types of processing.
Cherry berries of the Vladimirskaya variety are medium in size
The variety is medium early. Ripening of the crop occurs in mid-late July. A feature is considered to be uneven ripening, due to which the berries may fall off. The fruits are well transported. The yield is average, depending on wintering and the region (under favorable conditions, it can reach 20 kg per tree). The grafted plants begin to bear fruit quickly - in the 2-3rd year.
Cherry of the Vladimirskaya variety is self-infertile, which means that planting only these trees will not bring a crop, a pollinator variety is needed nearby.
Types of cherries varieties Vladimirskaya
Since cherries have a long history and have been bred by many amateur gardeners, they are not genetically homogeneous varieties. In fact, it is a mixture of closely related cherries that are very similar to each other. You can find such names:
Table: pollinators of Vladimirskaya cherry
Also good pollinators are:
- Moscow Griot;
- The bottle is pink;
- The fur coat is pink;
- Consumer goods black.
Vladimirskaya herself is also a good pollinator, considered one of the best for Turgenevka, Shokoladnitsa.
The variety has high winter hardiness, but it is not very suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of the Russian Federation: low temperatures damage generative buds. This does not lead to the death of the plant, but affects its yield. In the North (Siberia, Ural), no more than 5–6 kg can be obtained from one tree. However, in the northern regions, the variety can act as a stock (that is, other plants are grafted onto it), and is also the ancestor of some frost-resistant varieties, for example, Kras Severa cherry.
The choice of planting material
You can buy seedlings in almost any nursery, however, among gardeners, material from the city of Vladimir is valued.
How to choose the right seedling:
- Better to take a grafted annual... It will take root faster than a two- or three-year-old tree, it will begin to bear fruit earlier.
- It is worth choosing a well-developed and healthy root system, without traces of insect activity. The best option is a few branches on the tree itself and powerful roots.
- You should buy the material in the fall.
Determination of the landing site
Care should be taken when choosing a location, since the tree will remain there for the next 15–20 years. The crown of an adult plant is spreading, round, its approximate diameter is 2-3 m.
An important point - stone fruits are planted as close to each other as possible. Although this is a controversial issue (some believe that the farther the better), it makes no sense to place Vladimirskaya cherries at a distance of more than 3 m from each other, and for high-quality cross-pollination it is better to keep the distance as short as possible.
In the process of choosing a location, evaluate:
- the presence of fences and buildings nearby;
- soil properties and groundwater behavior;
- the presence of other landings.
Well cultivated, fertile soils with a suitable mineral composition are preferred. Type - sandy loam with a neutral reaction. The place should be bright, preferably southern. Fences, enclosures, buildings, taking into account the growth of the crown, are desirable. Fences will make it easier to organize snow retention in winter, and for Vladimir cherry, soft wintering is very important.
Before planting, the site is dug up, manure is introduced (up to 15 kg per 1 m2), superphosphate or phosphorus flour, potash fertilizers, 100 g each.
Cherries are sensitive to excess moisture. The proximity of groundwater will inhibit the growth of the tree and affect the harvest. Check the bedding of the waters - they should not be closer than 1.5–2 m from the soil surface.
Before planting, the top of the tree should be pruned to 60–80 cm. In the southern regions, the plant is planted in a permanent place in the fall, in cold regions - in the spring. If the seedling was bought in the fall, for the sake of safety it is buried (Fig. 1 and 2) into furrows 35 cm deep, laid at an angle of 40 °, the crown is placed to the south, the roots are covered, the soil is tamped, watered. The ground part of the tree is covered with spruce branches - this will protect the branches from freezing and rodents.
For the winter, cherry seedlings must be dug for protection
In cold regions (Siberia, Ural), Vladimirskaya is planted only in the spring.
Landing: step by step instructions
Spring planting times vary by region. In the Moscow region, it is carried out in the spring, as soon as the snow has melted. To do this, choose a dry, calm and warm day. The holes are prepared in advance - a month before planting, they dig holes 60 cm in size3 at a distance of 3 m from each other. An interval of 3.5 m is maintained between the rows. A peg is driven into the center of each recess - it will support the young plant. Planting pits are fertilized if this was not done during digging. To do this, make:
- ash - 0.5 kg;
- phosphorus fertilizer - 300 g;
- potash fertilizer - 80 g;
- manure - 15 kg.
Prepared seedlings (examined and selected) are planted:
- Ground is poured near the peg, forming a hill of 50 cm.
- The roots of the seedling are spread over the entire surface, sprinkled with earth on top, neatly, but strongly compacting it.
- A small hole is formed near the tree.
- Water well (for one seedling - 3 buckets of water, which should be at room temperature).
- The watered soil is lightly sprinkled with earth, the tree is tied to a support.
After planting, the cherry must be tied to a peg installed in the planting pit
Video: how to plant cherries
Nuances of care
During active growth, the following activities will be required:
- Watering - 3-4 buckets per adult plant. If the summer is rainy, only top dressing is needed.
- The introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers from the calculation for fruit crops.
- In the fall - water recharge irrigation.
- Deacidification of the soil. It is an important part of tree care. Even on slightly acidic soils, cherries will grow poorly, and harvests may not be expected at all. Before planting in acidic soil, lime must be added. Substances that normalize acidity are added in time: potassium and calcium.
The variety has an average winter hardiness, so a shelter for the winter will not be superfluous. The trunk circle is covered with peat, sawdust, rotted (but not fresh) foliage.
To protect against rodents, the lower part of the trunk and branches are wrapped in burlap or any thick paper (newspaper can be used, but better with wrapping or wrapping paper). Cloth covers are put on top. This is not very reliable protection against rodents, so you can consider materials such as: plastic bottles, birch bark, roofing felt, iron mesh, nylon tights, spruce spruce branches.
Pruning and shaping the plant
- Cherry pruning is a moot point. If you are not confident in your skills, it is better not to carry it out at all.
- In the spring, the procedure is not carried out after swelling of the kidneys, since the risk of fungal infection increases.
- Be sure to remove the branches growing inside the crown, dry, damaged by diseases.
- Pruning is done in spring and autumn. In the spring - for the purpose of formation, in the fall - as a prevention of diseases. Summer pruning is carried out only on well-developed trees. In winter, the procedure is unacceptable.
Video: pruning cherries
Fight against major diseases
The most common diseases of cherries are moniliosis and coccomycosis. Disease control methods are similar, since they are all bacterial and fungal in nature. It is better to focus on prevention, since it is many times more difficult to treat an already infected plant.
Do the following:
- When the buds begin to bloom (green cone phase), the tree is treated with Bordeaux mixture 3%.
- As soon as flowering is over, the plant is again sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1%) or Skor preparation (1 ampoule per 10 liters of water). Repeat this procedure after 3 weeks.
- In the fall, fallen leaves are removed, the tree and the ground around it are treated with a 7% urea solution.
- Remove unwashed fruits, avoiding falling off. Infected berries are selected and destroyed.
- Sanitary pruning is carried out. Visible damage, for example, from gommosis, is cut out or cleaned out to healthy tissue, treated with greenery or a solution of copper sulfate (3%). After drying the wound, a garden var is applied.
Table: main diseases of cherry
Photo gallery: external symptoms of cherry diseases
Fight against the main pests of cherries
With some pests, control measures are similar:
- Manual collection of beetles is carried out in cool weather, when the insects freeze. They are shaken off onto the litter, then destroyed.
- Trapping belts are attached to the trunks.
- The treatment is carried out with the most safe drugs for humans, such as Aktara or Fitoverm. Barely opening buds are treated, the procedure is repeated after flowering.
Table: methods for eliminating the main pests of cherries
Photo gallery: the appearance of the pests of the cherry orchard
Pros and cons of the variety
- Delicious berries with a good sugar content, suitable for various uses.
- Excellent transportability.
- The care is average in complexity.
- Beautiful, lush, highly decorative crown. The plant will decorate the garden.
- The yield today is not the highest and depends on the region.
- The need for pollinating neighbors.
- Low resistance to disease.
- Low frost resistance. The variety is not very suitable for growing in regions with unstable winters or in persistently cold areas.
Cherry Vladimirskaya still occupies a worthy place in the amateur garden. Its benefits have been proven over time. At the same time, it also has disadvantages: low frost resistance, instability of the variety - instead of large berries, you can get small and not the most delicious ones.
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Cherry Vladimirskaya - variety description
Poditeleva, Vyaznikovskaya, Dobroselskaya, Gorbatovskaya, Izbyletskaya, Vladimirovka, Vladimirovskaya - these are all the names of one cherry variety - Vladimirskaya. Over the many centuries of the existence of the variety, many different forms of it have appeared, since reproduction was carried out in different ways. Vladimirskaya cherry has been included in the State Register of the Russian Federation since 1947.
The fruits of the Vladimir cherry are not only tasty, but also beautiful
According to the shape of the crown, Vladimirskaya can be either standard or bush, depending on the seedling. Obtained from undergrowth, they form bushes of 5-7 rather high trunks 2.5-5 meters and more. Trees from grafted seedlings form a bole of the same height. The crown is spreading, the branches drooping, like a willow. Leaves are characteristic, folded in the shape of a boat, ovoid.
Flowers are collected in bunches of 5–7 pieces. Fruits are round, 1.5–2 cm in diameter, weighing up to 3.5 g. Almost black when fully ripe. With dense red flesh. The taste is excellent, with a characteristic cherry aroma. Cherries are eaten fresh, they are made into jams and liqueurs.
The content of various substances in the pulp of cherries - table
|Vitamin C||26.6 μg / 100|
The stone is easily separated, it is small, about 8% of the total weight of the fruit. The berries have a dry separation, which makes them transportable and stored for a long time.
Cherry leaves and berries contain substances similar to antibiotics. They also contain phytoncides, which delay putrefactive processes. Therefore, cherry leaves have been added since ancient times to preparations, pickles and marinades.
The term for entering fruiting depends on the method of obtaining the seedling. Grafted cherry trees begin to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. Obtained from root shoots - 1–2 years later.
Cherry blossoms in mid-May, after apple and pear trees. The fruits do not ripen in two months at the same time. Overripe quickly crumble. They do not set without additional pollination. The best neighbors for this purpose may be Shubinskaya or Lyubskaya cherries.
Vladimir cherry tolerates frosts down to -35 ° C, but flower buds can die in such frosts. In fruitful years, up to 25 kg of fruits can be harvested from one tree. The farther north and colder, the lower the yield. There is no immunity against diseases. Requires preventive treatments and good care. Cherry trees of the Vladimirskaya variety do not live long. By the age of 15, the tree loses its ability to bear fruit.
Excellent harvest Vladimirovka - video
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety - table
|Delicious fruits for universal use||Susceptibility to fungal diseases|
|Decorativeness of the tree||Low winter hardiness of flower buds|
|High yields in favorable years||Short fruiting period of the tree, short life span|
Further care of the culture
The seedling is well watered all autumn and the next season. After that, it is necessary to moisten the soil only if the summer is hot and dry. In the fall, first of all, they carry out moisture charging.
It is most advisable to feed the culture with ash and mullein. Mineral-based fertilizers for cherries are chosen in such a way that they receive a lot of nitrogen and potassium. Phosphorus is needed in small quantities, but it cannot be deleted at all.
To obtain an excellent harvest, formative pruning is carried out before the start of sap flow. Sanitary - if required.This operation will help to avoid thickening of the crown, which contributes to the development of fungal infections, such as coccomycosis.
It is not necessary to hide the Chernokorka for the winter in the regions recommended for growing the variety. From hares and other rodents, the bole is tied with straw or burlap for the winter, if the cherry is formed in the form of a bush, a wire fence is installed.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Unfortunately, the delicious and beautiful Chernokork cherry is severely damaged by coccomycosis. Signs and control measures for very common variety problems are shown in the table.
The leaves turn yellow, specks appear on them, which grow and, over time, turn into holes. In July, the affected vegetative organs fall
On a green cone and after leaf fall, cherries are treated with a copper-containing preparation. Before the onset of frost, the tree is sprayed with metallic vitriol. During the pouring of the fruit, 2 kg of wooden ash and 60 g of simple soap are diluted in a bucket of water. Number of treatments - 2-3 with an interval of 10-14 days
Significant cleaning of fallen leaves, sanitary and formative cuttings, preventive spraying. Treating cherries with non-toxic drugs epin and zircon can increase the immunity of cherries
Shoots and flowers (fruits) begin to dry out. This sometimes happens in wet weather. Fruits change, cracks appear on the bark
First of all, all the affected organs are removed, capturing part of the healthy tissue, the sections are finished with garden pitch. After the treatment is carried out by spraying with copper preparations or other suitable fungicides
The same as with coccomycosis
Most of all, it affects young leaves and shoots, sucking out cell sap from them. Vegetative organs change, become sticky, then wither and dry out
If there are fewer insects, a simple soap solution can be used to spray. If the colony of aphids is large, they are treated with an appropriate insecticidal preparation.
Fighting anthills. Constant pruning
The insect lays eggs in the berries, from which the larvae hatch and eat the cherries inside.
Fruits soften, rot, crumble
Grandma's remedies are not effective. 60-70% of pests can be removed with specialized traps. Requires insecticidal treatment approximately one month before harvest
Timely pruning, harvesting loose leaves, digging the trunk circle in the fall