Cultivation of blackberry raspberries in the North-West of Russia
Of the many wild species of raspberry with dark-colored - black or purple - berries, only one is used in the culture, known as raspberry blackberry or black... In addition to the unusual color, the berries are distinguished by a pleasant blackberry taste, and the jam from them is unusually beautiful and aromatic. The berries are good both fresh and processed. They are considered curative because they contain a lot of biologically active substances, vitamins, organic acids, carbohydrates.
The plant is very decorative and during ripening, when the bushes are literally covered with black shiny berries, and in the fall, after leaf fall, then the shoots turn blue and look very picturesque. Compared to red, black raspberries are more drought-resistant, practically do not get sick and are not damaged, but their winter hardiness is somewhat lower, although there are varieties that tolerate even severe winters well (up to -30 ° C).
Black raspberry Is a perennial plant with annual and biennial shoots and a deep root system. Unlike red raspberries, it does not give root shoots - young shoots are formed only from the buds at the base of biennial stems. This means that you can plant such raspberries next to garden beds, a flower garden or between fruit trees.
Annual shoots of black raspberries are branched with arched hanging tops, green, with a strong bluish bloom, spiny. Biennial branches are brown, with a lilac bloom. Flower buds are laid on them. The inflorescence is neat and compact - raceme or scutellum.
The berries are round, medium-sized, red at the beginning of ripening, when fully ripe they are black, shiny, with a bluish bloom. In mature form, they are well separated from the receptacle, while they do not crumble for a long time and can be stored for several days.
Caring for black raspberries is simple, but in order for it to grow well and bear fruit, you must follow some rules.
The area where this crop is grown should be sunny and well sheltered from the winds, especially in winter. Despite the sufficient winter hardiness of the cultivated varieties, for the winter, the shoots must be bent to the ground so that they are under the snow.
Black raspberries, as noted above, have very deep roots, so the groundwater level on the site should not exceed 1.5 m. This crop gives the highest yields on light fertile soils.
Black raspberries should not be placed after potatoes and tomatoes, since they have a common dangerous disease - verticillary wilting. Although this raspberry is quite disease and pest resistant, it is best to keep it away from the red one.
Black raspberries are planted every 1.5-2 m in a row and with row spacing of 2-2.5 m - this is not much for her, since with good care, 8-15 shoots up to 2.5 m long grow during the season. with a depth of 40-50 cm and a width of 50-60 cm, fill with humus, compost, rotted manure (1.5-2 buckets), add wood ash (4-5 glasses) and superphosphate (1 glass). It is necessary to plant the plant with a slight deepening, then be sure to water and mulch.
Mulching is an indispensable technique for caring for black raspberries. It retains moisture, raises soil temperature, and suppresses weeds. You can mulch with manure, peat, rotted sawdust, chopped straw, weeded grass with a layer of 10-12 cm.
To tie up long hanging shoots, it is advisable to make a trellis of two-meter stakes with a wire stretched in two tiers - at a height of 60 and 120 cm.Organic fertilizer is applied every two years at the rate of 5-6 kg per 1 sq. m of the trunk circle.
Mineral fertilizer is applied annually in the form of liquid dressings. Top dressing is combined with watering. 10-15 g of urea, 35 g of superphosphate, a glass of wood ash are added to 10 liters of water, it is used because black raspberries are sensitive to chlorine. For one bush, depending on its power, 1-2 buckets of solution are consumed. Foliar dressing is carried out every 10-15 days, alternately using solutions of boric acid (10 g per 1 l) and urea (10-15 g per 10 l of water).
Black raspberry is moisture-loving, watering is especially necessary for it. The lack of moisture affects primarily the number and size of berries, in addition, new shoots develop poorly - the basis of the future harvest. Therefore, it is recommended to water it three to five times with an interval of 15-20 days: before flowering, during the green ovary period and before the berries ripen. Winter watering is very important.
Fruiting shoots are best removed in the fall, immediately after harvesting the berries, and all damaged, broken and thin ones - in the spring. 7-10 powerful stems should be left on the bush, tied to a wire and shortened so that they rise no more than 20 cm above the trellis.The shoots tied obliquely can be longer, up to 2 m.All varieties of black raspberries produce a lot side shoots, which must be removed, leaving hemp up to 1 cm high on the main shoot.
In black raspberries, root shoots are not formed, and they are propagated mainly by apical layers. At the end of summer, when the apical part of arcuate annual shoots, hanging down to the ground, acquires an elongated serpentine shape and is covered with small wrinkled leaves, it is pinned to the ground and sprinkled with soil. A month later, in September, good adventitious roots and small shoots are formed from the apical buds. Young layers for the winter should be covered with insulating material (peat, humus) or covered with earth, and in spring they should be separated from the bush and planted in a permanent place or for growing.
Black raspberries reproduce well with green cuttings. Planting this raspberry is recommended in the spring. But as early as possible - it begins to bloom very early.
The most common and winter-hardy black raspberry variety is Cumberland. The variety of American selection, rather old, it is more than 100 years old, but still retains high consumer qualities. Cumberland bushes are powerful, vigorous. Shoots are thick, with short internodes, arcuate, not pubescent, with large sparse thorns and a strong waxy coating. The berries are round, rather large (up to 2.5 g), dense, shiny, juicy, sweet, with a strong blackberry flavor and aroma. They ripen early - in mid-July.
Judging by the literature, there are varieties of Russian selection (Povorot, Ugolyok, Udacha), but here the trouble is old - they are not visible on the shelves of garden salons.
Black raspberry: its varieties, characteristics and subtleties of cultivation
One of the main features of black raspberries is considered to be easy to care for, because the plant does not bring much difficulty. But not experienced summer residents, before starting to grow raspberries, should find out all the subtleties and features of planting and caring for the described variety.
The advantages of black raspberries
Talk about this berry is not in vain, it really deserves attention. Here are some of the most obvious benefits of this plant:
- Growers prefer to grow black raspberries on their plots because of their excellent taste. Black raspberries are much sweeter than regular red ones. And some varieties have a honey taste, without sourness.
- The fact that black raspberries give excellent yields attracts many summer residents. Fragrant berries from a bush can be collected from 2 to 4 or more kilograms, depending on the variety and plant care.
- Elastic berries do not deform during transportation. In addition, raspberries are not only suitable for fresh consumption, but also easily lend themselves to any processing: freezing, canning, making jam.
- The benefits of black raspberries are still being studied, but it is already known that it contains ellagic acid, which not only has the strongest antioxidant activity, but is also an effective means of preventing and combating cancer.
Given this, many summer residents do not hesitate to breed black raspberries in their homes. Now it is worth getting to know the popular varieties of this plant, and find out what kind of care is needed for raspberry bushes.
Pruning black raspberries and preparing for winter
Raspberry pruning is one of the main agricultural techniques that affect the future harvest. Black raspberry bears fruit on annual branches, which are located on two-year shoots. Cut it off twice.
The first pruning is carried out in June, pinching the growth point of annual branches. Possessing a high vigor of growth, the bushes will begin to actively throw out side shoots, on which many fruit carriers will be formed next year.
The second pruning is done in the fall. It is of a sanitary nature - old, damaged and thickening branches are removed. Long shoots are shortened to lateral branches.
Preparing black raspberries for winter
In autumn, raspberries are removed from the trellises and prepared for wintering. The shoots are tied and pinned to the ground. In snowless cold winters, additional cover with lutrasil or spruce branches will be required.
Black raspberries are hardy and picky. The berry taste deserves special attention - sweet, honey, aromatic. Fulfilling simple rules of care, every year you can collect high yields of black berries that are unconventional for raspberries.
In its appearance, black raspberries are very similar to blackberries. Berry ripening in such varieties is not all at once. However, nevertheless, she has one difference, by which one can understand that we are dealing with black raspberries. The berries of this plant can be removed without the white stalks. But as for the blackberry, its berries are removed only with the stalks.
Black raspberries are similar to ordinary raspberries not only in the usefulness of berries, but also in cultivation techniques. At the same time, she has her own characteristics.
It is customary to include black raspberries or blackberries in the Rosaceae family. This culture comes from North America. It is there that it is most common. In our country, it is not so represented. Some people have never even heard of the existence of such a variety of raspberries.
Great attention should be paid to this perennial dwarf shrub, which has one-year and two-year arcuate curved stems up to 2.5 m long, covered with thorns.
Annual shoots have a strong bluish or purple bloom. As for two-year-olds, they are dark brown in color. The leaves are rather complex, pinnate. In the course of its development, unlike black raspberries, this variety does not give root growth. Young shoots are formed from the buds at the base of two-year-old stems. In mid-June, it begins to bloom. The inflorescence is a scutellum, the flowers are usually small, bisexual, and pollinated by bees or other insects. The fruit is a complex drupe of medium size, round in shape. The berries of this raspberry variety turn red at the beginning of ripening. When fully ripe, they become black, dense, shiny, there is a bluish bloom on the berries, they look quite attractive in appearance. Black raspberries have a pleasant taste with a blackberry flavor. Unlike blackberries, ripe fruits are well separated from the stalk, they can hang on the stalk for a long time, while their shedding will not occur.
Compared to red raspberries, black is more drought-resistant. However, it is inferior to the first in terms of its winter hardiness. However, there are some varieties that are able to withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C. Black raspberry growing in Central Russia is practically not susceptible to disease and does not suffer from pests. If the care for black raspberries is the same as for red, then the first will have a much higher yield. Among its advantages is the fact that it begins to give yields much earlier than red raspberries. If conditions are favorable, up to 4 kg of raspberries can be harvested from one bush.
This variety of raspberries has a powerful root system. It penetrates to a depth of 1.5 m. The bulk of the roots is located in the surface layer of soil 35-40 cm. In terms of soil, black raspberries are undemanding. But fertile loams and sandy loams are preferable for it.
Planting black raspberries
When planting black raspberries in the garden, select a sufficiently illuminated place that is well protected from cold winds. At the planting site of this culture, the groundwater level should not be higher than 1.5 m.In those parts of your site where potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshades previously grew, which suffer from such a disease as verticillium wilt, you should not place raspberries. The best neighbor for black raspberries is red. Although it should be noted that the first is more resistant to various diseases and pests.
Planting raspberries is best done in early spring, since the growing season for this crop begins early. When planting, seedlings are placed from each other at a distance of 60-80 cm in rows, and between rows it is better to increase it to 1.5-2 m.Pits for planting black raspberries are dug 30-35 cm deep.Their width should be 40-50 cm If the site is dominated by medium-fertile podzolic soils, then before planting, half a bucket of kg of humus or compost, 200 g of superphosphate and add 70-80 g of potassium sulfate should be added to each hole. As a substitute for mineral fertilizers, wood ash can be used - about 0.5 kg. Fertilizers are mixed with the top layer of soil, after which this mixture is poured into the pit. Then the planted seedling is plentifully watered. Then mulch the soil around it. For this, peat, manure or rotted sawdust are used. Along with them, you can use chopped straw or cut grass.
The trellis is placed one year after planting. It is necessary for the garter of hanging stems. In addition, the posts are installed along a row with a diameter of 8-10 cm.It is on them that two or three rows of wire with a diameter of 3-4 m are fixed.The first is located at a height of 60 cm.As for the second, a height of 120 cm is chosen. shoots are performed in early spring to a height of 140-150 cm, after which it is tied to a trellis.
The use of short pruning when forming shrubs results in compact, yet powerful shrubs. They do not lie down, so there is no need for their garters. In order to achieve this, at the moment when annual shoots reach a height of 50-60 cm, they are shortened by 7-10 cm.After that, axillary buds awaken and lateral shoots are formed, which can reach a length of 1 m by autumn.
Pruning of these shoots is done in early spring. Three to six buds are left on each of them. The number of berries on the shoot is reduced after a short pruning. But this is made up for by increasing the size of the kidneys and improving their quality.
After the end of the fruiting period, all the fruiting shoots are cut out. After trimming, they are taken out and burned. With the onset of spring, the shoots are normalized, leaving up to 10 pieces of the strongest. At the same time, thin, diseased and broken shoots are cut out.
A limited number of varieties of black raspberries are widespread in our country. The most common of all varieties is Cumberland.
Black raspberry Cumberland
A distinctive feature of the plants of this variety are powerful bushes. Shoots are distinguished by their thickness, have short internodes, curved arcuate, with thorns and waxy bloom.As for the leaves, they are dark green, 3-5-leafed, rough. During the flowering period, white flowers appear, which are collected in corymbose brushes. The berries formed on the bushes have a rounded shape, their mass can reach 2 g. The fruits are black and dense, have a shine. The berries have a sweet taste with a blackberry flavor. Their ripening occurs quite early, especially when compared with plants of other varieties, the first berries ripen in mid-July. As for the yield, it is 3-4 kg per bush. This variety is one of the most winter-hardy raspberry varieties. It is able to withstand frosts down to -30 °. In seasons of heavy rains, plants are attacked by anthracnose.
How to plant black raspberries?
Best time to plant raspberry varieties Cumberland - the beginning of spring. But if a fresh seedling came to you in summer or autumn, it should be planted immediately, without waiting for spring.
It is recommended to plant black raspberries in a sunny and well protected area from the wind. Best of all, the plant takes root and grows on light loamy chernozems. Gray forest soils are also suitable.
To plant raspberries Cumberland, you need to prepare holes about 50 cm deep and fill them with a mixture of humus and wood ash. Further, a little earth should be poured into the pits, seedlings should be placed in them and covered with soil. After planting, the raspberries need to be watered abundantly, and the soil around it should be mulched with straw, compost or peat with a layer of about 7 cm.
Please note that when planting a large number of raspberry seedlings Cumberland It is most logical to plant in 2 rows, leaving a distance of 0.5 m between the plants, and 2 m between the rows. The fact is that black raspberries grow very well: its shoots can reach 3 m in length.
Do not plant black raspberries in a garden that has previously grown tomatoes, potatoes, or red raspberries. Also, do not break a raspberry tree near the planting of blackberries.
The next year after planting near raspberry bushes Cumberland trellis should be installed and plants tied to them. To make it easier to pick berries, the garter should be done in a fan-like fashion.