Spirea: planting and care in the open field, pruning and transplanting

Spirea: planting and care in the open field, pruning and transplanting

Garden plants

The main trump cards of the spirea are unpretentiousness and spectacular flowering. And meadowsweet blooms profusely at the very peak of the summer heat, when many plants simply fall under the scorching rays. If you take into account some of the features of this shrub, you can ensure continuous flowering of spirea in your garden from May to September!

  • When is the best time to plant summer spirea? And the spring?
  • How and why to cut the meadowsweet "on a stump"?
  • How to properly rejuvenate a bush?
  • What plants are considered ideal neighbors for spirea?
  • Do I need to cover the meadowsweet for the winter?

Let's figure it out together.

Planting and caring for spirea

  • Landing: in September, in rainy or cloudy weather. Only summer-flowering species can be planted in spring.
  • Bloom: species are divided into those that bloom in spring and those that bloom in summer.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: loose, fertile, consisting of sod or leafy soil with the addition of peat and sand.
  • Watering: in the dry season - 15 liters of water for each bush 2 times a month.
  • Top dressing: twice a season: in early spring after pruning - with a solution of complex mineral fertilizers, in the middle of summer - with a solution of mullein with the addition of superphosphate.
  • Cropping: in spring-flowering species in early spring, only the tips that have been frozen during the winter are cut off, but after 15 years the plant is cut onto a stump for rejuvenation. Shoots of summer-flowering species are pruned every spring to strong buds, and after 4 years the bush is pruned at a height of 30 cm for rejuvenation.
  • Reproduction: seed and vegetative (by dividing the bush, cuttings and layering).
  • Pests: pink-colored miners, rose leafworms, spider mites, aphids.
  • Diseases: does not get sick.

Read more about growing spirea below.

Spirea (Latin Spiraea), or spiraea, is a genus of ornamental deciduous shrubs of the Rosaceae family. Translated from the ancient Greek "speira" means "bend", and the validity of this name is confirmed by the special flexibility of its shoots. The main advantage of the spirea is its unpretentiousness. There are about a hundred species of spirea growing in the steppe, forest-steppe and semi-deserts. There are references to spirea, or rather, meadowsweet, in the epic "Sadko" (about 1478), then in the 19th century information about this plant falls into the dictionary of V. I. Dal: he writes that the strong and thin branches of meadowsweet used for ramrods and whips. Today, different types and varieties of spirea are grown in culture, and they all differ not only in high decorativeness, but also in frost resistance, and the duration of flowering.

Botanical description

Plants of the genus Spirea are both dwarf (15 cm) and very tall (up to two and a half meters). The root system is shallow, fibrous. Branches are creeping or erect, spread or recumbent, from light brown to dark, the bark tends to exfoliate longitudinally. The leaves are petiolate, alternate, three to five-lobed, lanceolate or rounded.

The flowers of the spire are small, but numerous, forming a variety of inflorescences - paniculate, spike-shaped, pyramidal, corymbose. The color of the flowers is varied, from boiling white to crimson. In different types of spirea, the inflorescences are located in different ways: in some, along the entire shoot, in others - only on the upper part of the shoot, in some - only at the ends of the branches. Spireas reproduce by dividing the bush, seeds, layering and cuttings.

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Spirea flower is used for group plantings, for hedges. Dwarf spirits are great for rockeries, rocky gardens and for creating living "carpets". The spirea bush also looks great as a single plant.

Features of growing spirea

Each plant has its own requirements for both planting and care.

Growing spirea also has its own characteristics:

  • spirea soil prefers leafy or soddy. Optimal composition: one part of sand and peat and two parts of land;
  • a drainage layer is required, broken brick can be used;
  • the spirea is planted in a hole, which is one third of the volume more than the butt of the plant;
  • planting depth - at least half a meter, and the root collar of the plant should be at surface level;
  • spirea should be planted in cloudy weather, and even better - in the rain. The best time is September;
  • the best neighbors for spirea are juniper, spruce, thuja.

Planting spirea

Spring planting

In the spring, only summer flowering spireas are planted. The main condition for a spring planting is to be in time before the leaves bloom. If you buy spirea seedlings, carefully consider the roots - they should not be overdried. Check the shoots of the seedling and only buy if they are flexible and have good buds. Adjust the planting material: if the roots of the seedling have grown too much, carefully shorten them; if, on the contrary, the roots are too dry or damaged, cut off the branches. If the root system is dry during storage, spill it with water or soak it briefly in a bucket of water, and only then plant it.

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Spirea is an unpretentious plant, but for a long and abundant flowering, it is nevertheless necessary to observe certain conditions: the site for the spirea must be sunny, the soil fertile. In addition, spirea bushes give abundant root growth, which increases the area occupied by the plant, and this must be taken into account when planning spirea planting.

In the photo: Spirea flowering in the garden

So, in the area where the spirea will grow, you need to make a pit with strictly vertical walls, at least a third larger than the volume of the root system of the seedling. Then you need to let the pit stand for 2-4 days. On the day of planting (preferably rainy or cloudy weather), you need to make a drainage layer of 15-20 cm from broken bricks, especially if the soil is clay, add 2 parts of leafy or turf soil and one part of peat and sand to the pit, mix this mixture, lower the roots of the spirea into the pit, spread them, cover them with earth to the root collar and then compact. Immediately after planting, the spirea is watered with one or two buckets of water and mulched with peat.

Planting in autumn

In autumn, both spring-flowering spireas and late-flowering ones are planted. Usually, the autumn planting is combined with the spirea planting by dividing the bush. This must be done until the leaf fall is over. Spireas, which are 3-4 years old, are divided and transplanted, older plants can also be planted, but this is already quite difficult to do because of the large earthen coma, which is difficult to remove and wash from the ground.

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The spirea bush must be dug out, capturing slightly more than half of the crown projection around the circumference. You will probably have to chop off a few roots, but this will not do much harm to the plant. Then the roots of the extracted bush must be washed well. If the plant is young and not very overgrown, just place it in a container of water and let the soil turn off and settle in the water, then rinse the roots under running water while spreading them out. Cut the bush with pruning shears into two or three parts so that each division has a good root lobe and 2-3 strong shoots. Trim the cordlike roots.

In the photo: Young spirea bush

Dig a hole, put a mound in the middle, set the seedling on a mound and smooth out the roots. Fill the hole with soil and apply it over the surface. In several steps, pour the planted cuttings with water.

Spirea care

Care features

We have already talked about the basic requirements of the spirea: bright lighting (although many species grow well in partial shade), loose fertile soil, good drainage and mulching with a seven-centimeter layer of peat immediately after planting. What else is needed in order for the spirea to delight you with beautiful and long flowering?

Since the spirea has a shallow root system, it does not tolerate dry soil well and begins to dry out, therefore it needs moderate watering in dry season: 15 liters of water per bush twice a month. Loosening the soil is mandatory, as is regular weeding. Top dressing of spirea is carried out with complex mineral fertilizer after pruning the bush, and in the middle of summer it would be good fertilize spirea with mullein solution with the addition of superphosphate at the rate of 10 g per 10 liters of solution.

In the photo: Beautiful spirea leaves

Of the pests, aphids and spider mites are the most annoying spire. The mite is destroyed by karbofos, and the aphid by Pirimor. But for the most part, spireas are not susceptible to diseases, and pests cannot do much harm to their beauty and reduce the decorative qualities of the spirea.

Pruning

Bushes tend to grow, so you have to cut them from time to time. In early flowering, since flowering takes place along the entire length of the shoot, only the tips are cut off annually, which froze over the winter, but after 7-14 years all old shoots are removed from the bushes, that is, the plant is cut almost to the stump, so that later from the very 5-6 strong shoots of young growth to form a new bush, removing the remaining shoots during the growing season. After a year or two, weak or old shoots are again removed from the bush. At the ends of the shoots, pruning should be carried out in the spring, before the leaves bloom, sanitary pruning of old shoots can also be carried out in the spring, or in summer.

Summer-flowering spireas are cut annually in early spring. It is necessary to shorten the shoot to large buds, it is better to remove weak and small shoots altogether. The stronger the pruning, the more powerful the shoots will grow. It is necessary to remove aging shoots in time, otherwise they begin to dry out on their own. When the bush is four years old, you can annually cut the bush to a height of 30 cm from the ground, but if the spireas still give weak growth, you should think about replacing the bush, although on average late-flowering spirea species live 15-20 years.

In the photo: Growing spirea in the open field

Reproduction

Spireas reproduce, except for dividing the bush, by seeds, cuttings and layering. Multiply seeds you can only those spireas that are not hybrids, since spirea seeds still do not retain varietal qualities. But the method of grafting brings very good results - over 70% of cuttings take root even without the use of growth stimulants. Early flowering spireas are cut in the first half of June, late flowering - in the second half of June or July. Lignified cuttings are rooted in autumn, in September-October.

Cut a straight annual shoot, cut it into pieces so that each has 5-6 leaves. Remove the lower leaves on each cutting along with the petioles, cut the rest of the leaves into half a leaf and put the cuttings in Epin's solution for half a day (1 ml per 2 liters of water). Then dust the lower knot of the cutting with Kornevin stimulant and plant in a pot in wet sand at an angle of 30-45º. Cover the cuttings with glass or plastic. Place the container of cuttings in the shade and spray them with water two to three times a day. When the frost sets in, dig in the cuttings in the garden bed, cover with leaves, place an inverted box on top and leave until spring. When the cuttings give new shoots next year, they can be planted in a permanent place.

In the photo: Drops of water on the leaves of spirea

When breeding layering the shoot is laid in a groove dug in the ground, pinned and sprinkled with earth. If you want to get several new shoots, then the top of the cut must be pinned, then each lateral bud can give a shoot. In autumn, the layers are carefully removed and divided into regrown shoots, which are planted.

Spirea after flowering

As already mentioned repeatedly, caring for the spirea is not difficult, including in terms of preparing the plant for the dormant period. Almost all types and varieties of spirea tolerate the cold well, but if the winter is very frosty, and most importantly, snowless, you can take care of the plant by covering the roots of the bush for the winter with a layer of foliage of 10-15 cm. In any case, spirea is not worse from this. will be.

Types and varieties

Some types and varieties of spirea are often used in culture, others rarely. By the time of flowering, spireas are divided into spring-flowering and summer-flowering.

Spring flowering spireas

They differ not only in early flowering, but also in that they are characterized by flowers of different shades of exclusively white color, which bloom on last year's shoots. Flowering begins only in the second year of the shoot's life. These spirits are characterized by strong tillering. The following types are popular in culture:

Spirea gray (Spiraea x cinerea)

It is a hybrid of St. John's wort and whitish-gray spiraea - in fact, it is white spirea, and it is called gray because of the color of the leaves. The bush reaches a height of 180 cm, drooping branches, lanceolate gray-green leaves on the lower side are gray, corymbose inflorescences of white flowers are located along the entire length of the branch. Blooms from mid-May to mid-June. Most popular variety:

Spirea gray Grefsheim: the diameter and height of the bush of this variety is 1.5-2 m, drooping branches, a spreading crown, red-brown branches, flowers up to 1 cm in diameter, snow-white, terry, collected in umbrellas. The plant is a honey plant, blooms up to 45 days, starting from the second year.

In the photo: Spiraea gray (Spiraea x cinerea)

In the photo: Spiraea gray (Spiraea x cinerea)

Spirea Wangutta (Spiraea × vanhouttei)

A hybrid of Cantonese and three-lobed spirea - a huge bush with a diameter and growth of up to 2 m, drooping branches, toothed leaves, glabrous, three-lobed, dark green above, gray below, turning red-orange in autumn. Numerous hemispherical inflorescences consist of white flowers up to 0.6 cm in diameter and are located along the entire length of the branch. It blooms in mid-June, sometimes blooms again in August.

In the photo: Spiraea Wangutta (Spiraea × vanhouttei

In the photo: Spiraea Wangutta (Spiraea × vanhouttei

Spirea nippon (Spiraea nipponica)

In nature, it grows on the island of Honshu, reaches a height of 2 m, the crown is spherical, dense, the branches are horizontal, green leaves up to 4.5 cm in length until late autumn, blooms for up to three weeks from the beginning of June with corymbose inflorescences consisting of yellow-green flowers up to 1 cm in diameter, with purple flowers in the bud.

In the photo: Spiraea nipponica (Spiraea nipponica)

In the photo: Spiraea nipponica (Spiraea nipponica)

Spirea arguta (Spiraea × arguta)

The earliest of spring-flowering spirits. A spreading bush of 1.5-2 m in height, very beautifully shaped, drooping flowering branches, like a foamy waterfall, consisting of numerous snow-white fragrant flowers, streaming along the entire length of the branches. Argta blooms for three weeks from the end of May.

In the photo: Spiraea arguta (Spiraea × arguta)

In the photo: Spiraea arguta (Spiraea × arguta)

Summer blooming

These are species in which inflorescences are formed at the ends of young shoots and in which old, last year's shoots gradually dry out, are represented primarily by varieties of Japanese spirea. It is pink spirea in most of its varieties, but sometimes it is red or red-pink spirea. So:

Japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica)

A very beautiful shrub with tomentose shoots when young and bare when old. The bush is 1-1.5 m high, the leaves are oblong, ovoid, gray-gray below, green above, in autumn - yellow, red, purple. Japanese spirea blooms for up to 45 days with red-pink flowers, collected in paniculate-corymbose inflorescences located at the ends of the shoots. The most popular varieties:

Spirea japanese little princesses - shrub only 0.6 m high, crown diameter 1.2 m, round crown, oval leaves, dark green, corymbose inflorescences consist of red-pink flowers 3-4 cm in diameter, blooms in June-July, grows very slowly ;

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Little princesses (Spiraea japonica)

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Little Princess (Spiraea japonica)

Spirea Japanese Golden Princess - a variety of the previous variety, differs from it in that it grows up to 1 m in height and the color of its leaves is yellow;

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Golden Princess (Spiraea japonica)

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Golden Princess (Spiraea japonica)

Spirea Japanese Shirobana - low shrub (0.6-0.8 m), but the diameter of the crown is 1.2 m, the leaves are narrow-lanceolate, dark green, small (2 cm). White or pink flowers bloom in July or August;

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Shirobana (Spiraea japonica)

In the photo: Spiraea Japanese Shirobana (Spiraea japonica)

Spirea Japanese Goldflame - height 0.8 m, yellow-orange leaves eventually turn bright yellow, then green-yellow, and in the fall - copper-orange. The flowers are red-pink, small;

In the photo: Spirea Japanese Goldflame (Spiraea japonica)

In the photo: Spirea Japanese Goldflame (Spiraea japonica)

Spirea Japanese Crisp - openwork undersized shrub up to half a meter high and slightly more in width, spherical crown, numerous erect shoots, inflorescences - flat umbrellas 5.5 cm in diameter from small pale pink flowers with a lilac tint, blooms from July 1.5-2 months.

In the photo: Spirea Japanese Crisp (Spiraea japonica)

In the photo: Spirea Japanese Crisp (Spiraea japonica)

In addition to Japanese spirea, there are such types of summer-flowering spirits:

Spirea Bumalda (Spiraea x bumalda)

A hybrid of Japanese and white-flowered spirea is a low-growing shrub with a height of 50 cm to 80 cm. Shoots are erect. Leaves, green in summer, in autumn are especially picturesque - red, purple, yellow. It blooms for about two months, starting in July with flowers from pale pink to dark pink. Popular variety:

Spirea Bumalda Goldflame - spiraea 0.8 cm high, the leaves are bronze-orange when young, then they become yellow-golden, then yellow-green, and in the fall - copper-red. But these changes occur if the bush is in the sun, while the leaves are green in the shade;

In the photo: Spirea Bumalda Goldflame (Spiraea x bumalda)

In the photo: Spirea Bumalda (Spiraea x bumalda)

Spirea willow (Spiraea salicifolia)

Two-meter shrub with upright shoots of red-yellow-brown color, pointed leaves up to 10 cm long, white or pink flowers are collected in pyramidal-paniculate inflorescences about 20 cm long;

In the photo: Spiraea salicifolia

In the photo: Spiraea salicifolia

Spirea Douglasii (Spiraea douglasii)

One and a half meter bush with straight, pubescent red-brown shoots. Leaves 3-10 cm long, oblong-lanceolate, dark pink flowers are collected in apical, narrow paniculate-pyramidal inflorescences, blooms for a month and a half from July to September;

In the photo: Spiraea douglasii

In the photo: Spiraea douglasii

Spirea Billard (Spiraea × billardii)

Douglas spirea hybrid and willow - bush height up to 2 m, broadly lanceolate leaves up to 10 cm long, bright pink flowers, collected in narrow twenty-centimeter pyramidal-paniculate inflorescences. Blooms from mid-July.

In the photo: Spiraea Billard (Spiraea × billardii)

In the photo: Spiraea Billard (Spiraea × billardii)

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Pink
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about the Shrub

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Pink (Rosaceae) Semi-shrubs Honey plants Ornamental deciduous Plants on C Spirea


The height of the bush is 2-2.5 m. The branches grow upward, forming a semicircular crown. The bush keeps its shape well. There are no leaves on the lower lignified part of the branches. The leaf plates are narrow, pointed, with a vein in the center. They can be green or silvery, and turn reddish-brown in autumn.

The crop can be grown in the northern regions

The root system consists of many adventitious processes. Loosening the soil around it should be very careful.

On a note! The shrub grows in one place for 15-20 years. After reaching this age, the plant must be replaced.


Description of the plant

The culture in question is considered deciduous, its bush is compact in size. Due to its good winter hardiness and drought resistance, spirea is grown in the most diverse climatic zones of our country.

The main feature of the plant is the color of the leaves. The leaves are brown in spring, turn green in summer, and red in autumn. Thanks to these features, the spirea hedge looks very attractive. The shrub is used in landscape design to beautify the local area, it goes well in mixed plantings with other plants.

The flowers of the culture are pink with a reddish tint, compact, collected in dense beautiful inflorescences. Their diameter, depending on the variety, ranges from 5 to 30 centimeters.


How to care for a dicenter in a garden or flower bed

For a plant to develop properly, it is necessary to provide a constant access of oxygen to the root system. Each time after moistening, the soil around it must be loosened, at the same time removing weeds.

Watering schedule

Dicenter watering is moderate, since the flower does not like waterlogging and drying out of the soil. The plant does not tolerate hard and cold water, so you first need to insist on it. Watered after the soil dries slightly, but will still be slightly moistened.

During dry periods, watering is done more often, but too much water is not used. If moisture stagnation occurs, the root system will quickly rot.

How to feed the dicenter in spring, summer, autumn

In order for the dicenter to bloom profusely, it is important to fertilize it correctly and regularly. In spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizing is introduced, which contributes to the abundant growth of foliage.

In the summer, when the shrub blooms, superphosphate is used. In autumn, the plant is fertilized with organic matter, spilling mullein infusion, and then mulched with humus. The listed dressings are applied only once in each season. This is enough volume for the dicentra to be healthy and pleasing with abundant flowering.

Pruning

A flowering shrub does not need strong formation. Its stems naturally bend to the ground. Large buds do not need to be tied. Dicenter pruning can be done to maintain a beautiful shape. It is enough to remove wilted buds in a timely manner, which will contribute to the rapid growth of new flowers.

Dicenter care in autumn and preparation for winter

It is necessary to provide the dicenter with proper care in the fall. For this, the entire ground part is cut off. Only stumps should remain no more than 5 cm high. The plant is frost-resistant, but the shrub should overwinter under a layer of mulch, which is chosen as peat. The thickness is made at the level of 7 cm. If you pour a more voluminous layer, then the shelter will turn out to be too warm, and the roots will begin to rot.


Spirea: planting and caring for the plant

Planting in open ground is carried out either in early spring, or in autumn before leaf fall. Spring planting is preferable for crops that bloom in summer. A bright area is selected. Although the culture is able to withstand partial shade, a huge amount of sun will affect its development very positively, and a lack of it can lead to flickering of flowers. Spireas must be planted in loose soil with a slightly acidic reaction. To compact the pit, a mixture of sand, peat and garden soil is made in a ratio of 1: 1: 2. The prepared soil is thoroughly watered and forgotten for a couple of days.

  • The hole digs 2 times larger than the large-root system of the bush, its volume is approximately 50x50 cm. On the eve of disembarkation, the hole should be windy and dry. At its bottom, a drainage layer of 15 cm is placed from broken bricks, crushed stone or coarse sand.
  • If a lot of spirits are planted to form a fence, a gap of at least 50 cm is maintained between the holes. It is allowed to dig a trench. It is also necessary to adhere to the gap when planting next to other plantings, since the root system of spirits expands over time.
  • The root system must be carefully inspected before planting. All spoiled roots must be removed with pruning shears.
  • The crown of the saplings requires preparatory pruning. Shoots are shortened by about a third. If the root system is too dry, more shoots must be removed.
  • If the seedling has a closed root system, it is thoroughly watered and only after the completion of this is transferred to the prepared hole.
  • The seedling is put into the hole, keeping the root collar at the soil level. The roots must be straightened.
  • The plant is sprinkled with the prepared earth mixture, a little trampled and watered. The trunk circle is covered with a layer of peat mulch.


Planting spirea in open ground

Planting spirea in spring

It is very important to plant spirea seedlings in early spring, before the first leaves appear on them. When purchasing planting material, it is necessary to carefully inspect the root part so that there are no damaged or dried roots on young plants. Shoots should be flexible, with good growth buds. Strongly overgrown roots can be shortened a little, dried up cut off, and slightly dried during storage - soak in a large container of water for several hours so that they are saturated with the necessary moisture. Having put the seedlings in full order, you can proceed to the process of planting spirea in open ground.

Spirea, unpretentious in growing, can delight with lush and long flowering only under certain conditions that must be observed:

  • Only summer flowering seedlings can be used.
  • The landing site must be open and sunny.
  • The soil on the site is nutritious and fertile
  • It is necessary to observe the distance between plantings, taking into account the rapid growth of root growth on the bushes, due to which the territory occupied by the plant significantly increases
  • The landing pit should have sheer walls
  • The volume of the planting pit should be one third larger than the diameter of the root system of the seedling
  • At the bottom of the pit, a thick drainage layer with a thickness of at least 15 cm of crushed red brick is required
  • The weather on the day of landing should be rainy or at least cloudy
  • After drainage, a special prepared substrate is poured, consisting of sod and leafy soil (in two parts) and coarse sand and peat (in one part), about one third of the height of the pit
  • The seedling is placed on the soil mixture, the roots are carefully straightened, sprinkled with earth to the surface of the earth and compacted
  • The root collar must remain at ground level
  • The first watering is carried out immediately, each seedling requires 10-20 liters of water
  • After watering, the trunks should be mulched with peat.


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