The evergreen perennial plant bamboo (Bambusa) is a member of the bamboo family of the cereals, or bluegrass family. Gardeners cultivate both plants that are representatives of the bamboo genus and those that belong to other genera of the bamboo subfamily. For simplicity, gardeners call all these plants bamboos. And in this article they will be called exactly the same, but in the section on species and varieties it will be described in detail to which genus and subfamily this or that plant belongs.
Plants belonging to the genus bamboo and the bamboo subfamily can be found in the wild in the subtropical and tropical regions of Europe, Australia, Asia, Africa, America, and also in Oceania. Moreover, herbaceous bamboos are found exclusively in tropical areas. Every year these plants are becoming more and more popular with gardeners. They are used to create spectacular hedges and to decorate patios and terraces.
Features of bamboo
Bamboos that grow in the wild are incredibly large. The stems (straws) are fast growing, lignified and branching in the upper part. Their height can vary from 35 to 50 meters. Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants on the entire earth. Short-petiolate leaf plates are lanceolate. On special branches with scaly leaf plates, multi-flowered spikelets are placed singly or in groups. Bisexual flowers bloom only once in several decades, while a massive and very lush flowering is noted. Interestingly, flowering begins at almost the same time on all plants in a given population. After the caryopses fully mature in the flower scales, they fall out, where they are carried by streams of water or animals. When fruiting is complete, the plant dies off entirely, but sometimes the roots may remain.
Bamboo has been used as a building material for a long time. Wind pipes or gutters are made from the dried stem.
Growing bamboo outdoors
Bamboo has a high decorative value because it is evergreen. For example, it is January outside the window, it is cold, there is snow, and your garden is decorated with bamboo, which, like in summer, is covered with green foliage. But it should be borne in mind that most species are thermophilic. There are about 100 species that can withstand a drop in air temperature to minus 20 degrees, while only a few are able to withstand severe frosts (up to minus 32 degrees). Experienced gardeners say that if the bamboo survives the first winter, then in the next one it will be able to calmly endure a decrease in air temperature to minus 20 degrees.
What are the conditions for cultivating bamboo in mid-latitudes? To grow it, you should choose a well-lit or slightly shaded area, while it should be protected from cold and dry winds. A simple fence can protect the plant from the winter dry wind. You can grow bamboo on any soil except clay and heavy. The acidity of the soil should be 6.0–6.2. You can start planting such a plant in open soil in the spring, after the soil has warmed up well. At the same time, planting can be carried out in spring, summer, and autumn (from March to September), but it is best to plant bamboo in April – June.
Landing in open ground
Plant bamboo outdoors in the same way as other plants in the garden. First you need to prepare a planting hole, it should be noted that its size should be 2 times the volume of the seedling root system. Then its bottom is covered with a layer of nutritious garden soil, which is mixed with humus in advance, it must be compacted. The seedling should be immersed in a container filled with water, along with the container in which it grows, for several hours. Remove the plant from the container only after air bubbles completely stop coming out to the surface. Then it is carefully lowered into a prepared hole, which is covered with a soil mixture consisting of nutritious garden soil and humus, which must be well compacted, trying to eliminate all voids. The top layer of soil (about 2–5 centimeters) does not need to be compacted. The planted plant must be watered very well, while all remaining voids must completely disappear.
How to water
When growing bamboo in mid-latitudes, you need to learn how to water it correctly, which is not difficult at all. Newly planted plants first need very abundant watering, while the soil surface must be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (organic matter). After the plant begins to actively grow, watering will need to be reduced to 2 or 3 times every 7 days, while you should also take into account whether it rains often at this time of year. Bamboo is a moisture-loving plant, and if it feels a lack of water, then it will develop a very powerful and long root system that can take moisture from the deep layers of the soil.
Gardeners cultivate 2 main varieties of bamboo, namely bushy and running. The peculiarity of bushy bamboo is that it grows in dense groups and at the same time does not creep over the site. But in running bamboo, the root system grows superficially, not sinking more than 5–20 centimeters into the soil, and sometimes they are located directly on its surface. Such a plant is capable of growing rapidly, capturing all new areas, if this is not included in your plans, then you will need to cut off the growing roots in a timely manner, and more than once a season. Those roots that you chopped off should be pulled out of the soil and disposed of, as they are able to continue their development further. You can limit the growth of running bamboo once and for all, for this, pieces of slate should be dug along the perimeter of the site, they must be buried 100-150 centimeters, and above the soil surface they should protrude 5-10 centimeters. You can also limit the growth of bamboo roots with a barrier film (root-barrier), which is a rigid and flexible plastic tape 0.5-1 m wide and 0.6 cm thick. This tape should be dug into the ground along the perimeter of the site at an angle ... In this case, the lower buried edge should be directed towards the site, and the upper one should be opposite from it. Sheets of slate, film or iron should be overlapped, not end-to-end, otherwise the powerful roots of the bamboo will break through them.
Pruning is carried out once a year in the spring. In this case, you should remove frost-damaged or old ugly bamboo trunks. In order for the rays of the sun to penetrate deep into the thickets, it is recommended to carry out systematic thinning. It should be borne in mind that if the trunk is chopped off above the node, then the plant can continue to grow and develop further.
In spring, the plant needs feeding with a nutrient mixture consisting of phosphate, nitrogen and potassium (3: 4: 2). In the fall, bamboo is fed with the same mixture, which includes potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen, but their proportion this time should be 4: 4: 2. After the nutrient mixture is introduced into the soil, the old stems will need to be completely cut off to the surface of the site, which then needs to be covered with a ten-centimeter layer of mulch (pine bark or dried foliage).
In the event that you decide to feed the bamboo with organic fertilizers, then you should take into account that they should be applied to the soil 1 time in 4 weeks throughout the season. After the autumn period comes, such feeding should be stopped.
The first wintering for bamboo is the most difficult. Its root system at temperatures below minus 17 degrees is capable of freezing, while at minus 20 degrees the trunk of the plant, located above the snow cover, dies. In the event that forecasters predict a frosty or little snow winter, experienced gardeners recommend bending the trunks of plants to the surface of the mulch layer, and spruce branches should be thrown over them, which will protect the plant from freezing. If the first wintering for the plant is successful, then in the following winters it will quite calmly endure frosts down to minus 20 degrees.
Propagation of bamboo
How to grow from seeds
Before sowing seeds, they need to be immersed in clean water for 12 hours. For sowing, you need a soil mixture consisting of fine wood shavings, wood ash and topsoil (1: 1: 8). The resulting substrate must be sieved through a sieve and moistened. This mixture is used to fill the cells in the cassette, and it does not need to be tamped. Small holes should be made in the cells, the depth of which should be within 0.4-0.5 centimeters. In each such hole, 1 seed is placed, which must be removed from the water and blotted with a clean cloth a third of an hour before sowing. Crops should be covered with a layer of substrate.
Then the cassettes are removed to a shaded area. Before the seedlings appear, the substrate should be moistened from the sprayer 2 times a day so that it is constantly slightly damp. As a rule, the first seedlings appear on the soil surface 15–25 days after sowing. After 3-4 months have passed since the emergence of shoots, and the formation of shoots in the plants begins, it will be necessary to pick them in individual containers filled with high-moor peat. After that, watering must be reduced to 1 time per day, while it is best done in the evening. Transplanting seedlings into open ground is carried out after they reach a height of 0.4-0.5 m. But it should be borne in mind that it will be better if the seedlings stay indoors for the first winter, because there is a high probability of their freezing or death from lack of moisture. During the first winter, plants can be kept in a greenhouse or in another room that is not heated, but it must be protected from drafts and frost. After the soil warms up well in spring, bamboo can be transplanted into open ground.
Vegetative breeding method
In the springtime, you need to dig up several shoots that are 3 years old, and then they are planted in a new place, which is in shade. They should be provided with abundant daily watering, but first they will need to be shortened by 1/3.
Diseases and pests of bamboo
This plant is highly resistant to both diseases and pests. However, there are certain types of bamboo that spider mites or worms like to settle on. To get rid of spider mites, the affected specimen is treated with an acaricide, and an insecticide will help with worms.
In some cases, bamboo is damaged by rust. In order to get rid of it, fungicides are used.
In the event that the foliage changes its usual color to yellow in autumn, then this is a natural process. So, for example, in bamboos of the genus Fargesia, 10–30 percent of the leaf blades turn yellow and die off, while in representatives of the genus Phillostachis - no more than 15 percent. Some of the leaf blades die off in the fall, because bamboo thereby conserves the energy needed in the winter months. In winter, all the yellow foliage will completely fall off, and the plant will again return to its fresh and very effective appearance.
Yellowing of the leaf plates in summer or spring suggests that not everything is in order with the plant. The foliage can turn yellow due to either chlorosis or flooding. In the event that the soil is oversaturated with moisture, then rot develops on the bamboo root system. Therefore, when planting seedlings in clay or heavy soil, it is recommended to make a very good drainage layer of sand or gravel at the bottom of the planting pit. Chlorosis can develop due to the fact that the plant feels a lack of nutrients such as nitrogen, magnesium or iron. In some cases, it develops due to soil salinity. After you start caring for the bamboo properly, new green leaves will grow.
Types and varieties of bamboo with photos and names
Bamboos cultivated in the garden are conventionally divided into upright-stemmed species with a rigid trunk, as well as into not very large herbaceous plants. Considering that the homeland of such a plant is the subtropics and tropics, when choosing a certain species and variety, its frost resistance should be taken into account. Of the bamboo subfamily, plants of the genus Saza are distinguished by the greatest frost resistance. Fargesia (synarundinaria) are distinguished by their frost resistance and endurance. Plants belonging to the genus Pleioblastus stand out for their highly decorative appearance. In the regions to the south, phyllostachis bamboos can be grown. Of the species belonging to the genus bamboo, ordinary bamboo is the most popular among gardeners. Ornamental (indoor) bamboo is not actually bamboo, the real name of this plant is Dracaena Sandler.
This genus is a representative of the bamboo subfamily and it unites about 70 species of various plants. They are found naturally in East and Central Asia. Plants of this genus are distinguished by the fact that they form rather dense thickets, while they prefer to grow under tall trees or on the edges. The height of the shoots can vary from 0.3 to 2.5 m. The wide-oval leaf plates are colored deep green in spring and summer. In autumn, the edge of the leaves dries up, which gives the impression of variegation.
The most popular of the representatives of this genus is the Kuril saza. The height of the shoot can vary from 0.25 to 2.5 m, and their thickness is 0.6 cm. The length of the pointed-ovoid leaf plates is 13 centimeters, and their width is about 2.5 centimeters. Flowering in this species is observed only once, and then the plant dies off. The development of such a plant is very slow, while in the middle latitudes only its undersized forms are cultivated, they are used as ground cover plants or to decorate Japanese gardens. The Shimofuri variety is quite popular, which has yellow streaks on the surface of the green leaf plates. In addition to Kuril saza, spikelet saza, paniculate, finger saza (the Nebulose variety has palm leaf plates), branched saza, Vicha, golden and reticulate are also cultivated.
This plant is a Chinese mountain bamboo. This genus was discovered by French missionaries in the eighties of the 19th century. Today this genus includes about 40 species of evergreens, the height of which is not less than 0.5 m. Such plants form loose bushes with a large number of stems. Graceful deep green leaf plates have a lanceolate shape, they reach 10 centimeters in length and 1.5 centimeters in width. In autumn, their color changes to greenish yellow. The most popular types:
Fargesia brilliant (Fargesia nitida = Sinarundinaria nitida)
This species is distinguished by its winter hardiness. The height of its shiny shoots varies from 0.5 to 2 meters, they are painted in a rich dark brown-red, almost black. Narrow-lanceolate leaf plates in length reach about 12 centimeters. Popular varieties:
- Eisenach - small leaf plates have a dark green color;
- McClure is a tall variety;
- New collection - the color of the shoots is cherry-purple;
- Great Wall - this variety is used to create tall hedges, the color of the leaf plates is dark green;
- Nymphenburg - on arched branches there are narrow leaf plates.
Fargesia murielae = Sinarundinaria Murielae
This species is frost-resistant. His homeland is Central China. There is a waxy bloom on the surface of the greenish-yellow smoothly curving shoots. Long-pointed leaf plates are bristly and pointed. This species blooms once every 100 years, after which the plants die off. The last flowering was observed in the late seventies of the last century, while its duration was equal to 20 years. At the moment, the following varieties are popular:
- Simba is a new compact Danish variety;
- Jumbo - delicate green leaves grow on a bushy plant;
- Bimbo - this variety is distinguished by its diminutiveness, the color of its leaf plates is greenish-yellow.
Also cultivated are such species as Jiuzhaigou fargesia and pectoralis.
This genus is a representative of the bamboo subfamily. It unites 36 plant species that have corrugated or flattened cylindrical shoots, painted in yellow, light blue, green or black. The stems have short internodes, green leaf plates and creeping rhizomes. The height of such a plant can vary from 350 to 550 centimeters. The most popular types:
Phyllostachis golden grooved (Phyllostachys aureosulcata)
In height, the stem can reach 10 meters, while its diameter is 20-50 millimeters. Strongly convex nodes are colored dark purple, grooves are yellow-golden. The Spectabilis variety is very popular with gardeners, characterized by its spectacular zigzag stems, this plant was awarded an RHS award. And very often such a variety is cultivated as Areokaulis with golden shoots, it was also awarded a prize.
Phyllostachis black (Phyllostachys nigra)
It can reach a height of no more than 7 meters. After the plant is 2 years old, its stems turn almost black. Small leaf plates are dark green in color. This species is most popular in its homeland, namely, in China and Japan. Very often cultivated varieties such as Boryana (height of about 450 cm, spots appear on the surface of the stems from sunlight) and Hemonis (the color of the stems is green, and their height is about 900 cm).
Phyllostachis edible, or moso (Phyllostachys edulis = Bambusa moso)
Originally from the southeastern regions of China. This species is considered the largest in this genus. The height of highly beaten shoots with smooth knots can reach up to 20 meters. The tortoiseshell form is distinguished by its ugly appearance, because the arrangement of its nodes is oblique and alternating; in the wild, it is found in Batumi, Sukhi and Sochi.
Gardeners also cultivate phyllostachises such as: sweet, Simpson, pubescent, Meyer, soft, flexible, green-blue, reticulated (bamboo) and gold.
This genus is represented by low-growing long-rhizome bamboos, while it unites 20 different species. The homeland of such plants is China and Japan. Certain species are highly frost-resistant and are therefore cultivated in mid-latitudes. These plants are distinguished by their shade-loving nature, but it should be borne in mind that variegated forms are best cultivated in a well-lit area. For cultivation in the garden, it is recommended to choose the following types:
The height of this plant can reach 800 cm. Strongly branched straight shoots have internodes, the length of which reaches 0.45 m. The nodes are convex. The length of the lanceolate leaf plates is 8–30 centimeters. When grown in mid-latitudes, the height of such a plant does not exceed 0.5–0.6 m, however, it is highly decorative, because it has dense bushes with well leafy stems. The variegated form of Variegat differs in that on the surface of the rich green leaf plates there are strips of various thicknesses of cream color.
Pleioblastus variegated (Pleioblastus variegatus)
This species is cultivated in the Caucasus (Sukhumi, Batumi and Sochi). Plant height can vary from 0.3 to 0.9 m. Elbowed thin shoots have short internodes. The leaf plates are very beautiful, on their green surface there is a slight pubescence, as well as a strip of white. If in winter there are severe frosts, then the leaves of such a plant can fly around, but with the onset of the spring period they grow rather quickly. The development of this species is very rapid, while it is able to form wide bushes.
You can also cultivate pleioblastus narrow-leaved, short, dwarf, cereal, green-striped, two-row, Ginza, Shina and Fortune, but they are not very popular.
In the southern regions, other plants are also grown, which are representatives of the bamboo subfamily, for example, some types of shibata and indocalamus. Gardeners cultivate only one member of the bamboo genus, namely, common bamboo.
Common bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris)
This herb is deciduous. Unbending, densely leafy woody shoots are painted in a deep yellow color. Their walls are thick, and there are green stripes on the surface. The height of the shoots can vary from 10 to 20 meters, while their thickness is 4–10 centimeters. The knees can reach 0.2–0.45 m in length. There is pubescence on the surface of the spear-shaped rich green leaf plates. Flowering is extremely rare, seeds are not formed. In this regard, for the reproduction of this bamboo, vegetative methods are used, for example, layering, division of the bush and rhizomes, shoots. There are 3 varieties: yellow-bore (gold), green-bore and variegated (up to 3 m in height, knee length about 10 centimeters). The most popular varieties:
- Striata... This variety is smaller than the main species. Deep yellow constrictions are located between the knees. Pale and dark green spots are randomly placed on the surface of the stems.
- Vamin... The bamboo is not very large. The constrictions located at the bottom are flattened and thickened.
- Vittata... Quite a popular variety that can reach a height of 12 meters. On the surface of the stem, there is a very large number of strips that look like a barcode.
- Waste paper... On the surface of the green trunk, there are many black streaks and specks. From year to year, the stems turn black.
- Vamin striata... The height of the stems does not exceed 5 meters. On the surface of the pale green trunk, there are stripes of dark green color. The bridges located in the lower part of the trunk are enlarged.
- Aureovariety... Quite popular in culture. On the surface of thin golden trunks, there are stripes of dark green color.
Kimmei. There are green stripes on the surface of the yellow stem.
Lavender: description, types with photos, planting and care in the open field
Recently, it has become a tradition in our family to go to the Crimea in the middle of summer. And a must-see is a visit to the amazing and fragrant lavender fields.
A talkative farmer told me a lot about lavender. How to grow a plant, what is its use, and which variety is the most winter-hardy - I am ready to tell you about this too.
Landing in open ground
Only planted large and resilient bulbs bloom in the same year.
When planting Ixia in the ground, it is important to remember that it is a tropical plant and too low a temperature can kill it. Therefore, gardeners recommend:
- In warm mild climates, bushes can be planted in the ground in the last week of April - the first week of May or November
- In mid-latitudes, it is better to land in the second week of May (the air temperature should be at least 10-12 degrees). In the spring, planting takes place - tubers cut in half for reproduction. You can't plant them in the winter
It is very important to choose the right place for planting, as it must be sufficiently illuminated. It is best to follow the basic guidelines:
- choose an area where there is a lot of lighting, no wind, preferably away from tall trees
- allocate space in the foreground in the flowerbed - thanks to this ixia, it will be possible to provide the necessary watering, and it will look spectacular
- pre-drain the soil well - stagnant moisture will destroy the roots of the plant
- choose loose, aerated and humus-rich soil with neutral acidity
After choosing the time and place, you should start planting a perennial. The whole process can be divided into several stages, detailed in the table.
|Planting ixia into the soil|
|Soil preparation||The earth is dug up in advance, freed from lumps and stones, leveled. If the soil is very heavy, river sand can be mixed into it (1 bucket per 1 sq. M).|
|Top dressing||Fertilize the soil in a complex way: per 1 sq. m, 70 g of superphosphate, 20 g of magnesium and 300 g of wood ash are introduced.|
|Preparation of planting material||Only the most elastic and dense bulbs are suitable for planting. All dry and moldy specimens must be destroyed. Selected tubers should be treated with a fungicide - it will protect them from mold.|
|Making holes||Depressions in the soil are made by 50-80 mm. In this case, the distance between the holes should be 10-12 cm from each other if whole bulbs are planted. When the bulbs are multiplied by dividing, they are planted in the ground to a depth of 4-5 cm.|
|Disembarkation||It is advisable to pour a handful of river sand into each hole - it provides soil drainage. Corms are placed in the finished wells, carefully sprinkled with loose soil. Immediately mulch the soil by 2-3 cm.|
|Watering||The planted tubers are not watered. The first time this can be done only after 15-18 days, when the sprouts will already be visible.|
It should be remembered that in the fall Ixia can be planted for wintering only in the southern warm regions and only with corms - delenki sit down in the spring, because they are not able to survive even a slight cold snap.
Only with proper care will the perennial bloom.
Despite the fact that Ixia was brought from warm tropical countries, it is quite easy to care for it - the main thing is to plant it in a warm, sun-filled place and water it in time.
Caring for a perennial is no different from other plants - you need to regularly weed the soil, remove yellow leaves, wilted spike-shaped inflorescences, and also feed with fertilizers in time.
The first watering is done only when green shoots appear.
Moderation is important when moistening the soil: the first shoots should only be lightly sprinkled, but as they grow, increase the intensity of watering. It is especially important to water Ixia abundantly during the formation of its buds and during subsequent flowering.
Tropical plants are used to humid, saturated air, so Ixia should be sprayed regularly with a spray bottle, especially on dry, hot days. For spraying, as well as for irrigation, warm, settled water is used. The moisture in the soil provides good drainage - it fights waterlogging, but keeps the roots fresh.
After the rain, the moist soil must be loosened, in the process of which all weeds must be removed. As soon as Ixia fades, its watering is reduced to a minimum, and in rainy, wet edges it is completely stopped.
Peat, sawdust and part of humus are used as mulch.
For feeding Ixia, mineral and organic fertilizers are used, which are applied every 10-12 days. Since she belongs to the family Bulbous, you can use any complex of fertilizers for this type.
Usually they use:
- Mineral nitrogen-containing: urea, potassium, saltpeter, ammonium sulfate
- Organic: chicken manure, rotted compost, peat, sawdust
They begin to feed Ixia, like gladioli, in the first summer weeks - about 2-3 weeks after disembarkation. Fertilize the plant with a nutrient mixture especially carefully during the budding period, and after all the flowers fall off, feeding is stopped. If the soil is fertile and saturated enough, then Ixia can be left without additional nutrients - it will take the necessary minerals from the soil, but in the summer the soil around the bushes should be mulched.
With mechanical division, even a small onion can be cut into 4-5 pieces
In the wild, Ixia reproduces by growing and distributing its seeds and babies. In horticulture, two main methods of reproduction are used:
- separation of babies from the mother's bulb
- mechanical reproduction
In the first case, gardeners wait until the mother bulb begins to grow shoots - this usually happens at 3-4 years of plant life. The rhizomes form babies, which are carefully cut with a knife. The cut site is processed with crushed coal or brilliant green, and the resulting seedlings are planted in the spring in garden plots.
If Ixia needs to be multiplied faster, then the path of division is chosen - the corm is cut so that the new part is with root processes and has a root bud (eye). The place of the cut is also carefully sprinkled with wood ash.
It is impossible to store bulbs in room conditions, you need to keep them cool
After prolonged flowering, the plant gradually transitions to dormancy. With the onset of autumn and cold weather, Ixia bulbs should be taken care of, since they do not tolerate cold well and even a small drop in temperature can kill them. After the onset of autumn, the aerial part of the perennial is cut off and harvested, and the bulbs are supplied depending on climatic conditions:
- If the climate is southern, warm, then the bulbs can be left in the ground, but it is good to insulate them. For this, the flower bed is covered with a layer of mulch (straw, peat). The thickness of the insulation layer should be about 4-5 cm
- In a temperate zone, the bulbs must be dug up for the winter and stored until spring planting: they must be dried well, and then disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate and dried again. Instances with mold or decay are destroyed in this case. Dry tubers are wrapped in thick paper (newspaper is perfect), placed in containers, and placed in a dry, ventilated room. You can put them on the bottom in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator.
You can plant perennials in flower pots for distillation - but they will not bloom after planting in the ground. With the onset of spring, flower tubers are either freed from insulation and fertilized, or they are moved again and planted again.
Diseases and pests
The most common problem is waterlogging - this leads to rotting of the bulb
Ixia is resistant to diseases and pests, especially if all the rules for planting and caring for perennials are followed. Possible causes of flower problems, as well as solutions, are listed in the table below.
|Disease or pest||Signs||Treatment methods|
|Fusarios - a viral disease||Leaves dry out, shoots grow crooked, and flowers are deformed.||The bush should be treated with a fungicide that contains copper.|
|Gray mold - bacterial disease||The tubers become moldy, and the plant begins to wither and dry out.||It is impossible to cure the affected specimens; they should be quickly removed so that healthy ixia does not become infected. For prophylaxis, plants are treated with Fundazol.|
|Septoria - a fungal disease||Small brown spots appear on the leaves. The bulbs have watery gray spots.||Spray the aboveground half of the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Destroy badly affected specimens.|
|Parasites (aphids, spider mites, thrips)||Flowers lose brightness, shoots become crooked.Dots and spots appear on the leaves.||The plant must be treated with strong insecticides.|
Ixia is a vibrant and exotic plant with beautiful flowers that will beautify any garden. Growing it in the open field is quite simple, the main thing is to correctly plant Ixia in the soil and timely satisfy the perennial's needs for water and groundbait. Indoors, ixia can only grow in special greenhouses and conservatories; at home, it is rarely possible to maintain the desired temperature and illumination.
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Ixia: description, types, planting and care in the open field: growing a star perennial in the garden | (60+ Photos & Videos) + Reviews