Anthurium is an exquisite, flowering plant that has been grown indoors for a long time. Amateur flower growers are attracted not only by its long flowering and elegant appearance of the bush, but also by the possibility of successful reproduction.
Anthurium - description of the species
In nature, anthuriums are common in the humid tropics of Central and South America. This is one of the most numerous representatives of the aroid family. There are about 500 species of this plant of natural origin and varieties obtained as a result of selection.
Blooming anthurium will decorate any home or office
In blooming anthurium, attractive, first of all, is the veil - a large heart-shaped stipule in the form of a sail... Depending on the variety, it can be pink, red, white, lilac and even blue. The flower itself is an unattractive ear with a delicate aroma. After flowering, the bedspread turns green and looks like an ordinary leaf.
In indoor conditions, the anthurium bush often reaches a height of 70 cm. The leaves are arrow-shaped or heart-shaped, rigid, glossy in many varieties.
Anthurium is that rare flower that is customary to give to men. The flowering bush has an ideal, almost strict shape and, perhaps, that is why the people call it male happiness.
Blooming varieties of anthurium are more popular among amateur flower growers, but decorative deciduous varieties have many admirers.
Crystal anthurium is beautiful for its large decorative leaves
Conditions required for indoor growing
Like all tropical plants, anthurium prefers high humidity, a warm location, and bright, diffused light. The soil is needed loose, water-absorbing, with the addition of vermiculite, crushed bark, coconut fiber or sphagnum moss.
Vermiculite is a natural layered mineral that has found application in various fields of human activity. In agriculture and in indoor floriculture, small fractions of an expanded substance are used - agrovermiculite. The addition of this material to the soil mixture for cuttings is justified, since it does not develop decay processes and at the same time contains a sufficient amount of microelements for rooting. The ability of the environment to retain and gradually release moisture has a beneficial effect on the development of young seedlings and allows vermiculite to be used not only as an additive, but also as an independent substrate.
The drainage layer should be at least 1/3 of the pot - this will protect the plant from root rot caused by moisture retention. Watering with settled, soft water is regular, especially in the summer months. For long-term flowering, anthurium needs fertilizing - once every two weeks, it is necessary to apply diluted micronutrient fertilizers for flowering plants on wet ground. It should be remembered that from an excess of mineral supplements, these plants stop blooming, and various spots may appear on the leaves. Therefore, it is advisable to purchase special fertilizers for anthuriums or use universal, but low concentration.
Video: anthuriums (red)
All possible breeding methods
Reproduction of anthurium in a potted environment is usually not difficult. To do this, use several methods:
- dividing the uterine bush;
- rooting offspring - lateral layers;
- rooting stem cuttings;
- rooting leaves of cuttings;
- sowing seeds.
A special substrate is required for rooting cuttings and shoots. It can be a ready-made soil for aroid plants or a mixture prepared independently (1 part of sod land, 1 part of leafy soil, 0.5 part of vermiculite, 0.5 part of coconut fiber, you can add a little coarse river sand and crushed charcoal). The resulting soil should be loose, free-flowing and breathable.
The use of a ready-made substrate for aroids will ensure healthy growth and flowering of anthurium and will save you from mistakes when compiling a soil mixture
By dividing the bush
Dividing an adult bush is the most preferred breeding method for anthurium. The resulting plants take root easily, as they already have a well-developed root system and can bloom in the year of planting.
For an overgrown anthurium bush, division is not just a way of reproduction, but an opportunity to continue development
The division of the bush is carried out in the spring, during the transplantation of an adult plant. The size of the mother flower does not play a special role - if there are processes that can be separated, then the process is the same for both young and old, overgrown anthuriums. You can also divide a flowering bush - if the procedure is carried out carefully and the plants are planted according to all the rules, then they will continue their flowering. In advance, you need to prepare pots of a suitable size, drainage, soil, a sharp knife, disinfected with alcohol and a little crushed charcoal.
Video: flower stories
Step-by-step process of dividing an anthurium bush:
- Remove the plant from the pot.
- Carefully inspect and mark the divisions so that each division has a growth point.
- Separate all parts one by one with your hands.
- Divide with a knife only where it does not work otherwise - sprinkle the cuts with crushed coal.
- Plant the resulting plants in pots (drainage by 1/3 of the volume is required).
- Pour and place in a bright, warm place.
Pots for planted plants can be either plastic or ceramic, the main thing is that their volume corresponds to the size of the flower. It is impossible to use large containers "for growth", as in them the earth can sour before the roots cover the earth. It is better to replace the pot with a larger one as the flower grows. In this case, a transplant can be omitted - it is enough to cross the plant without disturbing the earthen coma.
This method is also best used when transplanting a plant. Separated shoots can be rooted in soft, settled water, in wet vermiculite or in a coconut substrate - this will not affect the result.
Coconut substrate is pure organic matter with neutral acidity. The absence of pathogens, high moisture capacity and hydrophobicity, as well as the presence of micronutrients make it indispensable when preparing a soil mixture for rooting cuttings or sowing seeds. You can use coconut substrate in its pure form, without the addition of peat or earth.
The roots grow back in about two weeks, and after a month, young seedlings can be planted in pots with soil.
Step-by-step breeding process:
- Remove the plant from the pot.
- Separate side shoots carefully
- Sprinkle the detachment points on the mother plant with crushed coal.
- Place the separated shoots in a container with water (wet vermiculite or coconut substrate).
- Cover the cuttings with a plastic bag, in the form of a greenhouse.
- Put in a shaded warm place.
During rooting, it is necessary to open the greenhouse every day for ventilation.
Separated side shoots for rooting can be placed in water or vermiculite
Propagation by cuttings
Cutting anthurium is best done in the spring. The method is convenient in that it is not necessary to transplant or reload the mother bush, unless, of course, it needs to increase the pot or renew the soil.
Step-by-step process of grafting:
- Cut off a leaf from the bush with a piece of stem 4–5 cm long.
- Cut the cut sheet by half or a little more to avoid moisture loss.
- Dry the cut cutting in the open air for 10-15 minutes.
- Put the dried cutting in a container with water (wet vermiculite or coconut substrate).
- Cover the handle with a plastic bag.
- Put in a warm place.
The first roots will begin to appear within 10 days. In a month, when the roots grow 2–3 cm, the plant can be planted in a pot and placed in a bright place.
For a prepared cutting, you need to shorten the leaf in order to avoid unnecessary loss of moisture.
Certain types of anthuriums - leathery, thick-veined, Scherzer's anthurium, Andre can be cut with a leaf.
Step-by-step process of cutting anthurium with a leaf
- Cut off the petiole 3-4 cm long with a leaf.
- Twist the sheet with a tube and secure with an elastic band.
- Immerse the petiole with the leaf in a glass of wet vermiculite (wet coconut substrate or sphagnum moss will also work), deepening it by a third of the leaf.
- Cover the glass with a bag and put it in a shaded warm place.
The greenhouse must be aired daily, and the cutting must be sprayed. After about a month, the roots will appear and then the young plant can be transplanted into a pot with soil.
Reproduction by part of the root
This is not the most popular way, but there are times when nothing else remains. If the leaves suddenly fall or the bush dies, it is necessary to remove the plant from the pot as soon as possible, rinse and examine the roots.
Step-by-step process of reproduction of anthurium with a part of the root
- If live roots with growth points are found, carefully remove all rotten and dried parts.
- Plant healthy roots in a pot so that the growth points are on the surface or very close to it.
- Cover the pot with wet moss and place in a warm, bright place.
When the ground part grows, you can start grafting in any way.
Plant healthy anthurium roots in pots, trying to keep the growth points close to the surface
The seed method of breeding anthuriums is rarely used by flower growers, as this is fraught with certain difficulties. In nature, inflorescences are pollinated by insects, at home we have to do it ourselves. During flowering, transfer pollen from one ear to another with a soft brush. We carry out this procedure within 7-10 days. As a result of pollination, berries of various shapes and colors will appear on the inflorescences. Fruit ripening lasts about a year - by the end of the term, they will be poured and will be ready for separation.
On one ear of anthurium, a different number of berries, filled with seeds, ripen
Anthurium seeds are not stored, so they must be sown immediately after collection.
Step-by-step process of planting anthurium seeds:
- Mash the fruit, remove and rinse the seeds.
- Soak the washed seeds for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Fill a flat container with soil mixture (the soil can be used the same as for grafting) and moisten from the sprayer.
- Spread the seeds over the surface at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other and press down slightly. You do not need to sprinkle it with earth.
- Cover the planting with glass or a plastic bag and put it warm, 23-25about place for germination.
Before the emergence of shoots, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse daily for 10-15 minutes. After two weeks, sprouts will appear, then the film or glass can be removed, and the humidity can be maintained by spraying. When the rosettes grow up and get stronger, place them in separate small pots.
Growing anthurium from seeds is rarely used by flower growers also because of a long wait for the result - such a plant will bloom in one and a half to two years, not earlier. Flowering can also be surprising, since during seed propagation of hybrids (mainly anthurium hybrids go on sale), it is not possible to preserve the species properties. However, this is not always a minus, since the resulting flower can please with an unexpected color and become unique.
Anthurium reproduces quite easily in all of the above ways. Possible difficulties include the long absence of regrowth of roots in the cuttings. It is necessary to make sure that the plant is in acceptable conditions - a suitable substrate or soft water (if rooting in water), it is warm (it is desirable to maintain the temperature at about 25 degrees), there are no drafts and direct sunlight. If all the conditions for grafting and subsequent transplanting of the seedling are met, and the appearance of roots is delayed, you can dust the cuttings with root, mixed in half with crushed charcoal. Place the cuttings treated in this way in a moist substrate or in water.
Growing indoor flowers gives owners a lot of joyful minutes. Reproduction of anthurium is a creative process that makes it possible to get a new flowering plant as a result in various ways, and when growing seeds - the hope to grow a flower never seen before.
How to propagate ficus at home: breeding methods
Many of these indoor flowers endow with magical properties. In some cultures, it is considered a talisman of family happiness, capable of forever binding loving hearts. But more often they say that the ficus protects the house from evil and disease, brings good luck and fills the space with positive energy.
Be that as it may, a winter garden of evergreen small trees on the windowsill can not only please the owners, but also:
- better than other plants to clean the air from benzene impurities, as well as phenol and other harmful substances
- decontaminate. Its bactericidal and antiviral properties have been known since ancient times.
- support immunity and anesthetize, relieve inflammation in diseases of the joints, mucous membranes, as solutions for rinsing, lotions and rubbing, tinctures from leaves and young twigs of home plants are used.
Feature! Tinctures should not be taken without the recommendation of a doctor, they can cause complications from the gastrointestinal tract, liver.
A single plant, if well cared for, can be a unique decoration for a room. But flower growers have long noticed that as soon as a tiny plant appears in the house, soon a pot with another variety of it appears next to it, then more and more.
The evergreen garden in the house amazes and delights all guests. They are propagated to give a tree to relatives or friends, to decorate a hall or an office, to grow a new flower to replace an old or dying flower.
Breeding rules and requirements
For the reproduction of rubbery ficus, it is necessary to adhere to some generally accepted recommendations:
- Experienced gardeners recommend propagating the plant exclusively in warm weather. The optimal period for this operation is spring or warm autumn.
- Ficus should be placed on windowsills with no direct sunlight, since they suffer from ultraviolet radiation, especially young leaves are susceptible to its harmful effects.
- When cutting the cutting, you need to get rid of the milky juice by holding it under running water.
- For reproduction, only woody shoots must be used, unlike young shoots, they will be able to release roots.
- To root the stalk, you can use both the upper part of the stem and those parts that have more than one node.
How to plant a plant with a shoot with a root
How can you plant an anthurium with a shoot with a root? This procedure should be performed only at the time of transplantation, in April - August. The root system of the mother plant and the “babies” must be exposed.
In spring and summer, vegetative processes are easier, the plant itself develops easily and actively, the air temperature is high and promotes better survival.
Before planting the shoots, prepare the soil (sod land - humus and perlite 1: 3: 1 part) and the pot (should not be too spacious).
Step by step process:
- The plant is carefully removed from the old pot.
- The earth ball is soaked in water for 5-10 minutes and separated from the roots.
- Only the lateral processes should be cut from the mother plant with a sharp knife.
- The cut is sprinkled with activated charcoal or cinnamon.
- The mother flower is planted in a pot, the void is filled with soil, the shoot must be planted in a separate container, without burying the growing point in the soil. Caring for him is the same as for an adult plant.
Important! The roots of the culture are very fragile, therefore they are easily injured, often they can be completely destroyed. You should never try to pull out a shoot with roots - the rhizomes will definitely come off, you will have to go through a long stage of rooting young shoots without roots. In this case, the plant takes root long and reluctantly.
How to root anthurium in water - home flower
Rooting a leaf
An effective rooting procedure is only possible when the leaves are cut with a stalk. Such reproduction is suitable for leathery anthurium, thick-veined, Andre, Scherzer and some other species. Consider the step-by-step reproduction of anthurium by a leaf:
- Cut off the leaf from the top of the petiole.
- Twist it into a tube, fix this position with a thread or elastic band.
- Dip a part of the stem into the peat mixture two-thirds.
- Pour plenty of water over the leaf and cover with a plastic transparent glass.
- Moisten the soil in the cups regularly and remember to cover the top.
Root in a dark and warm place. Air and spray the planting daily. In three to four weeks, a sprout will hatch on the surface, then another and another. Now you can cut off the old leaf and transplant the young bush into a permanent pot.
It is important to note that only Scherzer's anthuriums, Andre's anthuriums, leathery and thick-veined anthuriums, as well as some other, less common species, can be bred through leaf propagation. An indoor flower can be propagated by a leaf according to the following technology:
- cut off the leaves from the top of the petioles
- twist the leaves into a tube and fix with a thread or elastic band
- it is required to bury the planting material in the peat-sand mixture by two-thirds
- leaves planted for rooting must be poured abundantly with water at room temperature and covered.
Rooting is carried out in a dark and warm place. Planting material must be sprayed and ventilated daily. After three to four weeks, a sprout appears, suitable for transplanting to a permanent place after about a month.
For the procedure to be effective, you need to cut the leaf from the plant along with the petiole. Then the leaf blade is carefully twisted into a tube and fixed in this position with an ordinary clerical rubber band.
The success of the rooting of the leaf directly depends on how correctly the potting mix was made. It should be loose, moisture-absorbing
How to care for anthurium at home and how to cut a flower
Many argue that it is quite difficult to grow plants that came to us from the tropics in an apartment. In fact, the anthurium flower does not require special care at home, all that it needs is to create a favorable environment for growth, and this is quite simple to do.
Anthurium is a plant that loves light, but in summer it needs to be shaded from the direct rays of the scorching sun. Therefore, choose places where there is sufficient diffused light. Although this flower belongs to shade-loving plants, it needs sunlight. In insufficient light, leaves and flowers of anthurium can change shape, twist, become stained, which, of course, reduces their decorative effect. Therefore, if you want to see how anthurium blooms, choose the right place with enough indirect sunlight (east or west windowsill).
If we talk about how to grow anthurium at home, we must not forget about the correct temperature regime. In winter - 15-18 ° С, and in summer - no higher than 28 ° С. Based on these indicators, we can say that the temperature in our apartments is ideal for the plant, and no special tweaks are required here. The only thing to remember is that in winter the plant should be kept away from the heating system, since the hot air from it can negatively affect the state of the foliage and further flowering.
What else is important for an anthurium flower? So that the plant does not hurt and gives a good color, you need to know how to properly care for it at home. It is not enough to adhere to the temperature regime and the necessary lighting. Drafts are dangerous for the plant. Therefore, ensure their complete absence even in the summer.
Soil is also an important criterion. The substrate required for anthurium is sod and leafy soil, peat, chopped moss (2: 2: 1: 0.5). You can add some coarse sand.
The soil should be loose, without excess water and lime. The soil should provide adequate circulation of air and moisture around the plant's root system. Stagnation of moisture leads to decay and disease of the flower.
Before pruning anthurium, make sure the integrity of the root system.
Diseases and pests of anthurium
Unfortunately, many owners of this plant complain of anthurium diseases. At home, if sufficient humidity, temperature conditions or excessive watering are not observed, this happens quite often. In addition, the plant is affected by various pests, which not only spoil its decorative effect, but can lead to the death of the flower. Therefore, it is very important to determine the disease in time, identify the pest and carry out the necessary work to eliminate it.
Diseases can manifest themselves in different ways:
- leaf color change
- the appearance of spots on the stems
- blanching of the color of flowers.
Leaves are the first to be affected by diseases in anthurium. How to treat these symptoms depends on the cause of the yellowing or drying out. Most often this occurs due to non-compliance with the conditions for plant growth (drying out of the soil, direct sunlight, too dry air). In order for the flower to come to life, it is enough to optimize these parameters to the ones that are comfortable for the plant.
But if the leaves first dry from the edges, gradually moving towards the center, this can also be evidence of a disease such as anthracnose. For treatment, use a systemic fungicide treatment.
The appearance of black spots on the foliage indicates that the plant is in a draft or that the temperature indicators are not met.
Brown spots indicate excessive watering, decay of the root system, or violations during flower transplantation. Also, such symptoms appear when watering the plant with very cold water or the presence of an increased chlorine content in it. To normalize the state of the plant, it is enough to water with settled water at room temperature. In order for the chlorine vapor to escape, the water should be left in an open container.
If the leaves of anthurium turn yellow, then there may be several reasons:
- waterlogging of the soil
- high concentration of applied fertilizers
- insufficient lighting
- cramped pot.
Having found out what exactly caused the yellowing of the foliage, you should eliminate it as soon as possible - this will help save the anthurium. When describing a flower, we talked about the need to feed it, but this should not be done so often, and with special solutions for aroid plants. If there are none, then the concentration of universal fertilizers should be diluted by half.
The most common plant pests can be:
If such parasites are detected, pesticide treatment and removal of affected leaves are carried out. Often, to save a plant, it will be required to completely transplant it into a new soil.
The plant can also be attacked by parasitic fungi. Most often this is manifested by spots on the foliage.
You already know about the features of anthurium and its types, you looked at the photos with the names of varieties and species:
With proper care, flowering will be abundant almost all year round. Many growers recommend keeping the plant in the kitchen or bathroom, providing sufficient lighting in the latter option. In these rooms, the most suitable humidity for normal growth. But it is easy to provide the necessary conditions in any other room of the house, if you follow the advice and recommendations of flower growers.