Back in the middle of the last century, the cultivation of grapes in central Russia seemed unlikely. After all, these vines love the sun and warmth, which is so lacking in the regions located near Moscow. Only by persistence, patience, deep knowledge and many years of work of breeders, this barrier was overcome.
From the history of grapes
According to historians and archaeologists, viticulture dates back at least eight thousand years. The ancient peoples of Asia and Africa feasted on sun berries, then she ended up in Europe and conquered both Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.
Grapes still had a long way to go to the Black Sea region and the North Caucasus. Only at the beginning of the 17th century, the first vineyard appeared in the Astrakhan region, and then at the behest of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and in the Moscow region, where it was grown by the covering method.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Tsar Peter initiated the first steps of viticulture on the Don - near the villages of Razdorskaya and Tsimlyanskaya.
Cossack selling Tsimlyansk wine, 1875-1876
In the last quarter of the same century, vineyards appeared in the Derbent region, Prikumskaya and Tver regions, and in the second half of the 19th century - in the Kuban.
Grapes in central Russia
The first successes in promoting grapes to the northern regions were achieved by the works of Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, who crossed American, Amur, North Chinese and Mongolian grape varieties, trying to obtain a more frost-resistant variety. As a result, they brought out the Russian Concord, Bui Tur, Arctic, Metallichesky.
Now there are many varieties that can be grown in the middle lane. Grape breeders and practitioners recommend in this region, where the summers are quite short, to plant grapes with a short ripening period.
Only in the register of the State Commission of the Russian Federation for Testing and Protection of Breeding Achievements (FGBU State Variety Commission) there are several dozen of such grape varieties recommended for cultivation in all regions.
Grape varieties with a short ripening period approved for cultivation in all regions - table
It makes no sense to describe all of them, of course. Objective and independent information about them is given in the register of the FGBU State Sort Commission.
Grapes in central Russia - video
Winegrowers, of course, grow not only those varieties that were included in the register of the State Commission for Breeding Achievements, but also those that are in the process of testing. Unlike varieties, these varieties of grapes are called forms. When choosing such plants for growing, the accumulated practical experience plays an important role.
Based on the experience of winegrowers-practitioners, consider the grape varieties that feel best when grown in open ground in the middle lane - Ivanovskaya, Ryazan, Kostroma, Bryansk, Tula, Tver, Kaluga, Vladimir, Lipetsk, Smolensk, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod regions and suburbs.
Regions of central Russia
When starting to grow grapes, beginners in this field should take into account that the advice and recommendations are general in nature. A lot, for example, when choosing a variety depends on the specific place where the vine will be grown. Even within the Moscow region, climatic conditions and soil composition are very different in its southern and northern parts.
The difference is really big. Where I live (Naro-Fominsk), the difference in temperature with the northern regions of the region is huge! If our snow can melt at the end of March, for example, then in the northern part it can lie for another whole month. Southern regions win almost a month for agriculture !!! And this is not enough. The composition of the soil is also different.
Grape variety: an overview of the best varieties
Exposition of grapes grown in the middle lane
To describe the grape varieties grown in the northern regions, materials and advice from practicing winegrowers Natalia Puzenko, Viktor Deryugin, Yaroslavl winegrower Vladimir Volkov, Olena Nepomnyashchey - a full member of the Moscow Society of Nature Experts (viticulture section), owner of a vineyard in the north of the Tver region were used
Grape variety Alyoshenkin Dar
This grape variety is also called Alyoshenkin, Alyosha or No. 328. It is recommended for home cultivation throughout the country by the Federal State Budgetary Institution State Variety Commission and has a positive assessment of almost all experienced winegrowers.
Its medium-sized bushes bear loose large clusters in the form of a wide cone. Oval white berries are of medium size. Inside them is poured pulp with clear juice.
The variety has an increased resistance to diseases and pests. It is recommended to plant it according to the 1.5x2.5 scheme, form it in the form of a multi-arm fan on a vertical trellis, regulate the load on the bush within 40-50 eyes.
Characteristics of the Aleshenkin Dar variety - table
This grape variety is recommended for home cultivation throughout the country by the Federal State Budgetary Institution State Variety Commission and has a positive assessment of almost all experienced winegrowers.
Grape variety in Memory of Dombkovskaya
This grape is also called ChBZ - black seedless winter-hardy or ChBR - black seedless early. It is recommended for growing in home vineyards.
Its vigorous bushes give large, winged clusters of medium density in the form of a cylinder, converging on a cone. The flowers are bisexual, that is, they do not need pollinating varieties.
Round black berries with pink juicy pulp do not have seeds, have a good taste, sometimes covered with a slight coating of wax. The color of the juice is dark pink.
This grape variety is formed in the form of a multi-arm fan, tied to a vertical trellis. Bushes are planted according to the 1.5x3 m scheme, the load is given up to 50 eyes.
Dombkovskaya memory grapes have increased resistance to pests and diseases, frost resistance.
Characteristics of the variety in Memory of Dombkovskaya - table
This grape is also called ChBZ - black seedless winter-hardy or ChBR - black seedless early
The grapes of Viktor Deryugin
Practitioner winegrower Viktor Deryugin successfully grows vines in the Moscow region (Ramensky district).
Practitioner winegrower Viktor Deryugin successfully grows vines in the Moscow region (Ramensky district)
In his opinion and experience, grapes that ripen 105-110 days from the beginning of the growing season should be grown in the Moscow region. Seedlings grown in containers should be planted when the threat of recurrent frosts has passed. This can be done throughout the summer period, but it is preferable - at the beginning of June. If the seedling has an open root system, then the time of its planting is shifted to autumn (until the end of October) or early spring after the snow melts.
The winegrower considers Agat Donskoy, New Russian, Phenomenon and others to be reliable and proven varieties. Among the new products, she recommends the varieties Super Extra, Charlie, White Miracle, Krasotka.
On its site such varieties and forms as F-14–75, Laura, Shunya, Nadezhda Aksayskaya, Victoria, Super extra, Nakhodka AZOS, Victor, Pervozvanny, Phenomenon (Pleven stable, Augustin), Summer Muscat, Gala , Aleshenkin, Cherry, Charlie.
Photo gallery: grape varieties grown by V. Deryugin in the Moscow region
- The famous winegrower Yevgeny Polyanin said very well about her: If they told me that I can keep only one variety for myself, I would choose Laura
- The vine ripens earlier than the harvest - a sign of high frost resistance
- The taste is similar to the Arcadia variety, beloved by many, but of an earlier ripening period, therefore, unlike Arcadia, in the conditions of the Moscow region it grows outside the greenhouse
- A worthy variety and, given its pedigree, promising for cultivation in the north
- Large berry size and very early ripening period, the variety is a clear leader in these indicators
- This year the grapes ripened on my site on August 12-17
- Some berries reached 38–40 mm in length. And I recorded ripening on my site on August 15-20
- Early ripening: August 18–23. The berry is beautiful, oval, amber color
- A truly phenomenal combination of sustainability, yield and flavor
- Early ripening, excellent taste, wood ripens very well (guarantee of good winter hardiness)
- The bunches and berries are very large. Disease resistance high
- This variety was one of the first ripe for me. It has more advantages than disadvantages.
- Early ripening form. The past summer has ripened on August 20
- Large bunches. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. The vine ripens perfectly in our conditions
- This form matured last summer for the very first (5-10 August)
Agate Donskoy is a table grape with vigorous bushes that are resistant to frost and disease. Ripening of shoots is good. The variety can be grown in non-sheltered culture. The recommended load on the bush is up to 45 eyes when pruning 5–8 buds.
Flowers of the Don Agate variety are bisexual, there is no problem with pollination. It is recommended to normalize the yield by removing unnecessary brushes, so that the ripening period is not prolonged, the quality of the berries does not decrease.
Agate clusters are moderately dense, sometimes loose. They are large, cone-shaped. The taste of round dark blue berries is simple. They have two seeds inside.
Characteristics of the Agat Donskoy variety - table
Agate Donskoy is a table grape with vigorous bushes that are resistant to frost and disease
A phenomenon sometimes referred to as Augustine, Pleven stable is a table variety of early ripening fruitful grapes. Its bushes have great vigor and high frost resistance.
The flowers of this grape are well pollinated, as they are bisexual, resulting in large clusters of moderate density, shaped like a cone.
Large oval berries, white with a slight yellowness, have a noble harmonious sweet and sour taste, which is highly appreciated by tasters.
Ripe bunches can remain on the bush for up to three weeks without losing the appearance and quality of the berries. The phenomenon tolerates transportation over long distances well.
Characteristics of the Phenomenon variety - table
A phenomenon sometimes referred to as Augustine, Pleven resistant is a table variety of early-maturing fruitful grapes
A word about Amur grapes
According to Olena Nepomniachtchi, varieties bred by Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko are interesting for growing in a non-covering culture. – patriarch of selection work with Amur grapes: Amur breakthrough, Marinovsky, Amethystovy, Amur triumph.
The Amur Breakthrough grape, also known under the author's names Odin and Potapenko 7, is distinguished by the fact that it can withstand frost down to -40 ºС without shelter. The variety was created by the famous grape breeder Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko and his wife.
A.I Potapenko with a bunch of grapes Amur breakthrough
This is a versatile mid-early grape. For its removal, the Amur original forms were used.
Bushes have great vigor and can form on a gazebo. In this variant, with a good supply of perennial wood, an adult bush can produce up to one hundred kilograms of grapes. The vine ripens well simultaneously with the harvest, regardless of the load of the shoots.
The dark purple round berries of the Amur Breakthrough have a juicy pulp with a peculiar taste. The bunches can be of different sizes, which is very dependent on the growing conditions of the grapes.
The Amur breakthrough, which has a high yield, ripens by the end of August, is perfectly transported, and is not damaged by wasps. This grape is used both fresh and for harvesting, making juice and wine.
Characteristics of the Amur breakthrough variety - table
The Amur breakthrough is very hygrophilous, requires timely watering. For the cultivation of this grape variety, acidic soils with high moisture and air permeability are preferable.
The variety easily tolerates pruning, plastically adapts to new growing conditions during transplantation.
Since the Amur breakthrough begins the growing season earlier than other varieties, young shoots can be damaged by return frosts inherent in the climate of the middle zone, but this does not affect fruiting, since replacement shoots grow, on which the crop is formed.
When grown in the middle lane, experienced growers recommend covering young vines, despite the high frost resistance of the variety, which is fully manifested in mature vines. In the future, the Amur breakthrough grapes are advised to be removed from the trellis for the winter in order to use the snow cover as a shelter.
In severe frosts, up to a third of the vine can die off, but, due to the high growth force of the Amur breakthrough, the remaining part is quite enough for the complete restoration of the plant and obtaining a good harvest.
Video: A.I. Potapenko and grapes Amur breakthrough
Frost resistance according to Volkov
Vladimir Volkov with Vovchik grapes
One of the most important qualities of grapes suitable for cultivation in the middle lane, the Yaroslavl winegrower Vladimir Volkov considers the frost resistance of the variety. He notes that the vines of those varieties tolerate frosts well, the shoots of which have time to mature well and get rid of excess moisture. In particular, this quality is most clearly manifested by grapes, the ancestors of which were Amur varieties. For them, a shoot broken in the fall may seem completely dry. This feature of these types of grapes allows them to easily survive the harsh winter, even under a light cover of straw and snow, like the Riddle of Sharova variety.
in the Yaroslavl region, this grape ripens by the beginning of August, among the first - for 100-105 days of vegetation
According to the winegrower, in the Yaroslavl region, this grape ripens by the beginning of August, among the first - in 100-105 days of growing season. His bunches are not very large - up to 0.5 kg. Medium-sized round dark blue berries with thin skin have firm and juicy flesh. Frost resistance is the highest -34 ºС, since the shoots ripen well and early.
V. Volkov's collection now contains more than fifty grape bushes. He grows them in the open field, but covers them for the winter. He advises fellow countrymen for growing grape varieties, about four dozen of which Volkov tested in practice. Among them are the aforementioned Aleshenkin, BCHZ, Victor, Cherry, Krasotka, New Russian, Pervozvanny, Super extra, Charlie, Shunya.
At the same time, the winegrower notes that varieties such as Laura, Nadezhda AZOS, Pleven (Phenomenon, Augustin), which were called by other winegrowers, and are acceptable in other areas of the middle belt, are completely unsuitable for the Yaroslavl land, they cannot be grown in open ground.
Early grape varieties in the open field of the middle lane
Summing up everything that has been said, it should be noted that regarding the cultivation of grapes in the open ground in the Middle Lane, the opinion of winegrowers coincided with the recommendation of the State Variety Commission for such varieties as Alyoshenkin Dar, Agat Donskoy, Phenomenon (Pleven stable, Augustine), Amur breakthrough, Memory of Dombkovskaya ... First of all, they can be recommended to novice winegrowers.
Late grape varieties in the open field of the middle lane
The climatic and weather conditions of this region with frosty winters, late frosts in spring, lack of autumn heat do not allow growing grapes here in the open field, which ripen at a later date. Such varieties of this southern liana can only be cultivated here in greenhouses.
Wine grape varieties for open ground
In the practice of winegrowers working in the middle lane, technical varieties of early ripening are grown, but such varieties are selected so that this period in a particular area comes as late as possible. This gives the berries time to pick up as much sugar as possible.
According to Olena Nepomniachtchi, who grows grapes in the Tver region, including technical ones, winemakers of this region widely use grape varieties with proven winter hardiness: Dobrynya, Prim, August PE, Early Zorka, Crystal, Bruskam, Golden Muscat Rossoshansky, Rondo, Magic , Marinovsky.
Two of them are included in the state register - Kristall (very early maturing) and Bruskam (mid-early variety), but the State Variety Commission recommended them for cultivation in the North Caucasian region, and Kristall - also in the Lower Volga region. In addition, the state register lists early and mid-early technical varieties recommended for cultivation throughout the country: Aliyevsky, Ermak, Zelenolugsky ruby, Manych, Stremennoy.
Trials (2014), conducted by Olena Nepomniachtchi, allowed her to recommend the following varieties as technical for the middle lane:
- Bianka grape bred in Hungary - resistant to diseases and frosts down to -27 ºС variety with medium-sized bunches of about 0.2 kg weight, yellow-green juicy berries with a harmonious taste and sugar content of 23%;
- German Siegerrebe grape is a disease-resistant early variety that can withstand frosts of -23 ºС, from the berries of which wonderful aromatic wines are obtained;
- Solaris is another German variety with an extremely early ripening period, frost resistance up to -24 ºС and a sugar content of 22-28%, which gives wines with hints of nuts and pineapple;
- Regent or Alan black (Germany) - a medium-early ripening variety with excellent immunity to diseases, stable yields, frost resistance down to -27 ºС, sugar content 21%, acid content 9 g / l;
- Leon Millot is a frost-resistant grape variety bred in the USA and France, resistant to frost down to -29 ºC, the sugar content of the berries reaches 22%, and the light wine obtained from them smells of fruit and a little chocolate;
- domestic variety Klyuchevskoy - medium early, frost resistance up to -29 ºС, sugar content 23%, harmonious grape taste;
- Shatilova 2–72 (white nutmeg) - another Russian early universal variety resistant to diseases, tolerates frosts down to -28 ºС, in berries with a delicate nutmeg taste, sugar is 19%;
- Far Eastern Novikova - a grape variety of Russian selection, early, frost resistance up to -28 ºС, resistant to mildew, the taste of black grapes has tones of blueberry, chokeberry, light nutmeg;
- Express is a universal disease-resistant early Russian fruitful grape variety, frost resistance up to -30 ºС, sugar content 23%, wine yeast must be used in the production of wine;
- Amethyst - Russian grapes of medium early ripening endure frosts down to -35 ºС, fruitful, sugar 22%, resistant to mildew, but requires prophylaxis of mildew disease.
Before starting to grow grapes in one of the regions of the middle lane, it is necessary to carefully analyze the climatic, weather and soil characteristics of the proposed planting site and, in accordance with this, consciously choose the appropriate variety. The best advisor for making the right decision can be a local experienced winegrower who knows in practice the peculiarities of a particular area.
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The best grape varieties for central Russia
Grapes love warmth. It was difficult to grow a berry culture in the middle lane a century ago. Only with the beginning of the development of selection, scientists were able to instill in plants resistance to harsh climatic conditions. At the moment, there are many elite grape varieties for the middle lane. Now you can grow grapes, no worse than on the southern slopes of the country.
Grapes in central Russia
The cultivation of grapes in central Russia is difficult due to the vagaries of the climate: the winters are frosty, the spring is often late, with frosts, and in the fall, warmth is not guaranteed.
Grapes for Central Russia
For this region, it is recommended to choose early maturing varieties, since the ripening time is one of the main criteria:
- the fruits must have time to ripen, despite the climatic conditions
- the branches become lignified enough after harvest to winter safely (otherwise they will easily freeze even in mild frosts).
By studying the description of grape varieties, every gardener wants to find a plant with ideal characteristics. Old table varieties are famous for their great taste, but they have low winter hardiness and are susceptible to disease. Wine grapes have good sugar accumulation and high juice content, but they have small clusters and berries.
The ideal option is to have several bushes for different purposes on the site.
This mid-season grape, popular in our country, has cylindrical wide-brimmed clusters. They are not very large - up to three hundred grams, but with fleshy and tasty berries. This variety is considered one of the most popular. Its berries help a person get rid of irritability and stress. They have no bones at all. The skin on the fruit is thin and transparent, sometimes with small black dots. The flesh of the berries is fleshy, with a very pleasant taste.
This Moldovan variety has a very pleasant taste, pleasing the eye with its aesthetic forms. Very early ripening combined with high yield and high taste of its large dark purple oval berries made Codryanka indispensable for vine growers. The variety has deservedly occupied its stable place in the top ten table grapes for many years.
Almost all gardeners know about this grape, which is called somewhat original. This mid-season variety with medium sized clusters - large and elongated, is characterized by the absence of seeds and the shape of the berries - oval elongated. They are covered with a weak wax and have a moderately sour and moderately sweet taste.
Over the years of fruiting in the gardens of our summer residents, the variety has shown the highest yield. Apparently, therefore, he is always in the top ten species. Pleven grows well on any soil, it is stable and resilient in all its characteristics. Its clusters are aligned, with the same, as if calibrated, elongated berries and with a harmonious taste. The variety is in high demand in the market, and it ripens very early.
The very early elegant
The grapes of this variety have proven their right to popularity. It ripens early, withstands frost, rain and drought, and besides, it practically does not get sick. The Elegance has beautiful bunches with large, egg-shaped berries of an original shape. It is very easy to normalize it, as gardeners testify, and there are no problems with pinching at all. The bunches of the variety are not damaged, and therefore they are in steady demand on the market. It is believed that these are “grapes for the lazy”.
The variety, according to breeders, shows great promise. In the south, Laura and Rapture mature within a week. The variety has very large oblong berries of a yellowish-golden color. The pulp of the fruit is crispy and tender. Laura's vine ripens well, easily tolerating frosts up to twenty degrees. In more severe cold weather, the plant needs shelter.
The variety was obtained by crossing Madeleine Angevin and a mixture of oriental pollen. Volgograd selection.
Forms large clusters of loose structure, conical in shape, with an average weight of 350-500 g (maximum up to 2 kg).
Has an amber shade with a white coating over the skin. Sufficiently small oval fruits, their weight reaches 3-5 g. The skin is thick. The pulp is crispy and juicy, with a pleasant sweet taste.
The main characteristics of the Aleshenkin variety:
- ripening period - 100-115 days (very early or very early)
- yield - 8-10 kg per bush.
- acidity - 3-6 g / l
- sugar accumulation - up to 17-20%
- eye load - 30-40
- the recommended pruning is for 8-10 eyes (but it is also possible for a short one - 4-6 eyes).
- frost resistance up to -22 ..- 26 degrees.
- Very high tasting score (8.8 points).
- Consistently high yield.
- Amicable ripening of berries.
- Flowers are bisexual.
- High percentage of rooting cuttings.
- Susceptible to fungal diseases.
- Prone to peas.
- Ripening of the vine is satisfactory.
- It is prone to overload, therefore, it requires mandatory rationing (1 brush per 1 shoot).
Anyuta forms large brushes weighing 700-800 grams (maximum up to 1.5 kg) of medium friability.
The fruit should be dark pink in color. Berries are oval, large, weighing 10-15 g (there are up to 20 g). The flesh is fleshy and the rind is firm. The variety is characterized by an unobtrusive nutmeg aroma.
Characteristic features of Anyuta:
- ripening period - 140 days (medium or medium late)
- sugar accumulation - 18-50%
- acid content - 5-7 g / l
- fruiting rate - 1.3
- eye load - 30-50
- recommended pruning - 8-10 eyes
- frost resistance up to -22 ..- 23 degrees.
- It has bisexual flowers, which gives stable pollination.
- The fruits do not crack even when the soil is waterlogged.
- Not prone to peas.
- Wasps are not damaged.
- Compatible with any rootstock.
- Good rooting of cuttings.
- Relative (average) resistance to mildew and oidium (3-3.5 points).
- Good maturation of the vine.
- Not damaged in transit.
- It is necessary to adjust the load, because prone to overload.
- There is often uneven ripening and coloration of the berry.
Arcadia is distinguished by large dense clusters, with an average weight of 500-700 g (maximum - 2-2.5 kg). Their shape is cylindrical-conical, with blades.
Arcadia berries are characterized by an unobtrusive, simple, but pleasant taste, which, when ripe, acquires a light aroma of nutmeg. The color is uniform white, the size reaches 23 by 28 mm (egg-shaped), the weight is 7-10 g (maximum up to 15 g), depending on the care and agricultural technology (load of the bush). The pulp is dense with a juicy consistency, and the skin is strong, which makes it possible to transport with a minimum percentage of damage.
Characteristics of the Arcadia variety:
- ripening period - 115-125 days (early)
- sugar accumulation (sugar content) - 15-16%
- acid level (acidity) - 4-6 g / l
- fertility coefficient (the number of clusters on a fruitful shoot) - 1.1-1.6
- the ratio of fruiting shoots - 60-75%
- yield - from 20 to 50 kg per bush
- the load of the eyes on the bush when pruning - 30-50
- pruning is recommended - for 8-12 eyes
- frost resistance up to -21 ..- 23
Arcadia is distinguished by medium or fast growth of shoots and amicable ripening of fruits, which makes it possible to get the first full harvest already in the 3rd year of cultivation.
- Excellent tasting performance (8 points).
- Decent resistance to mildew (3-3.5 points).
- Quite good resistance to gray rot (2.5-3.5 points).
- Wasp is hardly damaged.
- No peas.
- High percentage of rooting cuttings.
- Compatible with many rootstocks.
- High transportability and marketability.
- Cracking during waterlogging of the soil.
- When overloaded with brushes, the ripening of the shoots worsens.
- Susceptible to powdery mildew.
Bred from Pleven and Villar Blanc varieties in Bulgaria. An early grape variety that ripens by mid-August.
Bushes of great vigor, used as living fences and sheds. The bunches are conical, medium dense. The berries are white, transparent in the sun. The taste is simple but harmonious.
The following advantages of the variety are distinguished:
- unpretentious care
- medium or increased frost resistance
- disease resistance
- consistently high yield
- ripe fruits can be stored on branches for up to 2-3 weeks.
- exactingness to the composition of the soil
- sensitivity to moisture.
The hybrid was bred by amateur breeders. Ripening dates are early or very early. The crop can be harvested from the end of August.
The bushes are very vigorous. The bunches are large, medium-dense. The berries are large, elongated with a pointed tip, pinkish when ripe. The pulp is juicy.
The variety is very early maturing. Obtained as a result of the work of breeders VNIIViV them. ME AND. Potapenko, Russia. Bred from the varieties Zarya Severa, Dolores and Russian Early.
A bush of medium vigor. Bunches are conical in shape, sometimes shapeless, large, of moderate density. The berries are oval, large. The skin is moderately dense, white, with a tan on the sunny side. The pulp is crispy, sweet, harmonious taste.
- can be stored for up to a month on bushes without loss of taste
- frost resistant
- resistant to mildew, gray mold
- tolerates transportation well.
There are also disadvantages, these are:
- not resistant to phylloxera
- average yield
- a good harvest can be harvested with a moderate load on the bush and well-developed perennial wood.
The hybrid is bred from the Frumoasa Albe and Vostorg varieties. Early ripening variety.
The bushes are vigorous. The bunches are cylindrical in shape, there are shapeless, moderate density, have a long stalk. The berries are very large, oval. The skin is white. The pulp is dense, harmonious taste, sweet.
- high yield
- frost resistance
- good taste characteristics.
- disease susceptibility
- a stable harvest is harvested from perennial bushes with good wood.
The early grape variety Laura (the second name is Flora) ripens up to 115-120 days. Large oval berries weighing up to 9 g have a salad-white color, the skin on the sunny side is tanned. Sugar content is higher than 20% with acidity up to 8 g / l, the aroma is pleasant with delicate nutmeg notes. Laura's bush, with good care, pulls the crop up to 40 kg.
The Uzbek variety Rizamat was the king of the market before the appearance of new hybrids. Its berries are large, pink, up to 14-15 g, with a sugar content of 22% and an acidity of 6 g / l. Suitable for obtaining high-quality raisins, preservation, for the market. It has medium bunches - up to 1000 g. Disadvantages of the variety - low resistance to diseases, frost resistance - up to 18 ° C.
If you are interested in early table grapes, transportable varieties for the market, then Libya is a great option. She has dense cylindrical clusters up to 1 kg and more, attractive pink ovoid berries with crispy and juicy pulp, harmonious aroma with nutmeg notes. Frost resistance down to -21 ° C, vegetation duration - 110 days.
Shatilov's Muscat is a hybrid white grape variety. This species is notable for the fact that it was created specifically for cultivation in the Russian climate. That is, grapes are resistant to frost and temperature extremes, precipitation. It does not need to be planted in an elevated area. The variety is unpretentious, rarely gets sick and does not require frequent watering. Average fertility.
- ripening by the end of August-beginning of September,
- frost resistance above average (up to -30 ˚С),
- medium-sized berry (4-6 grams) and a bunch (up to 1000 grams),
- sugar content - from 16 to 20%,
- place of origin: Russia.
The berries have a yellow-golden hue, light green veins. As a rule, they have a moderately musky odor and a sweet taste.
Black Muscat grapes, according to some sources, originated in the Crimea, at the end of the 19th century. It still grows actively on this peninsula, as well as in the south of France. Grown in warm climates, on elevated land surfaces (mainly on slopes). The main name for black nutmeg is Kalyaba or Kayaba. This species is distinguished by an above average yield, the fruitfulness of the shoots is more than 60%.
- medium-sized milk mushrooms (up to 1000 grams), like berries (up to 10 grams),
- sugar content - up to 20%,
- frost resistance is low, light-requiring high,
- the yield is, on average, 60 centners per hectare,
- ripening takes from 130 to 150 days,
- the species is resistant to fungal diseases, but is susceptible to attacks by leaf rollers,
- ripe berries are dark blue.
The variety has marketable clusters up to 370-700 g with large berries up to 8 g and more. This grape has an amber color, attractive appearance, with a harmonious taste. The advantages include early ripening (100-110 days), resistance to fungal diseases is above average. The Super-Extra grape variety can withstand temperatures down to -24 ° C.
Obtained by crossing the varieties Bolgar and Alphonse Lavalle. Bred by Ivan Todorov (Bulgaria).
The growth of the bushes is very strong (transgressive effect), which often forces the plant to form even in the year of planting. The flower is bisexual.
The bunches are large (18 x 13 cm), with an average weight of 500-600 g, from conical to cylindro-conical, loose.
The berries are very large, with an average weight of 13-14 g (38.2x23 mm), elongated, slightly pointed towards the top, color from dark red to dark purple. The skin is thick, firm, and edible. The pulp is crispy, the taste is harmonious, reminiscent of the Bolgar variety. Seeds of medium size, round pear-shaped, with a short beak, dark brown.
Characteristics of the Velika variety:
- ripening period - 130-140 days (average)
- yield - 9.8 kg per bush, 350 kg / ha
- sugar content - 15-17%
- acidity - 5 g / l
- pruning fruit vines - 5-7 eyes
- frost resistance up to -22 degrees.
The recommended type of shaping is a two-plane trellis.
- The berries do not crack.
- Wasps are not affected.
- The vine ripens perfectly.
- Disease resistance is average.
- Highly transportable.
- Stores relatively well in the refrigerator.
Has a good affinity with rootstocks CO4, 41B, Monticola. But rootstocks are recommended that inhibit the strong growth of the scion: Chassela x Berlandieri 41B, CO4, etc.
- In the north, it is highly susceptible to fungal diseases, primarily mildew.
The variety of early middle ripening period was bred by amateur breeders on the basis of Talisman and Cardinal.
The bushes are very vigorous. The bunches are large in size and density. The berries are round, yellow, a reddish tan appears in the sun. The pulp is dense, the skin is easily eaten. The taste is harmonious, with a nutmeg aroma.
The advantages of the Monarch are as follows:
- shoots develop well
- the crop is stored for a long time on the bushes without loss of taste
- does not get overwhelmed.
- resistance to diseases and frost has not been studied
- not suitable for industrial cultivation.
A hybrid obtained from the varieties Talisman and Kishmish radiant. By the timing of ripening - early.
The bushes are vigorous. The clusters are large, cylindrical-conical, medium dense. The berries are oval, large, white with a pink blush. The pulp is fleshy, the skin is not felt while eating, the taste is characterized as harmonious.
- high transportability
- frost resistance.
Cons - average disease resistance.
Growing grapes in the regions of Russia
There is a wide variety of climatic zones on the territory of Russia: from subtropics to tundra. The most favorable conditions for growing grapes are in the south of our country: the Crimea, the Caucasus, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. In these regions, you can grow various table and technical varieties with any ripening period of berries. Mild winters make it possible to cultivate grapes on an industrial scale in an uncovered way without the risk of freezing of plants. For example, in the Crimea, the variety Ladies' finger, or Khusaine Bely, is successfully grown, which freezes at temperatures below -10 ° C.
Crimea has the most favorable conditions for growing grapes
In the Volgograd region, grapes of all ripening periods have time to yield. Warm weather from April to September, and sometimes in October, makes it possible for late varieties to fully ripen. But in winter there are frequent significant drops in temperature. For successful cultivation in this region, it is better to give preference to frost-resistant varieties (not less than -25 °) or take care of a good shelter of vines for the winter. With the covering method of cultivation, it is possible to obtain excellent grape yields in varieties with low frost resistance.
In the Volgograd region and other regions of Russia close to the south, it is popular to cover grapes for the winter with film or spunbond
For cultivation in the North-West of Russia, in Udmurtia or Tatarstan, it is preferable to use varieties of early and medium ripening. With a covering method of growing, the frost resistance of the selected varieties may not be very high. For a non-covering method, the following varieties can be recommended:
- Svetlana (-25 ° C),
- Phenomenon (-24 ° C),
- Krasa Nikopol (-25 ° C),
- Muromets (-26 ° C),
- Redness (–26 ° C).
Due to its good frost resistance, Krassen grapes can be grown without a covering method in central Russia.
Thanks to the work of breeders, the cultivation of grapes in Siberia, the Urals and the Far East is quite possible. In the southern regions of these regions, some late varieties may also ripen, but it is still better to give preference to early and middle ones. For a non-covering method of cultivation, we can safely recommend Japanese, Russian and American varieties:
- Triumph (-40 ° C),
- Taiga (-32 ° C),
- Levokumsky (-35 ° C)
- Northern shoulder (–32 ° C).
Even in Siberia, excellent grapes can be grown.
The berries are fleshy, the peel is firm, but not very thick, has a pleasant aroma and good taste. Odessa souvenir has an average frost resistance, and therefore, of course, like all table grape varieties, it must be removed, laid and covered for the winter period.olimpik2012
For me, all grape varieties are alike, like two drops of water. But Isabella is an exception. It is unlike any other variety! A dense brush with round berries (about 1 cm in diameter). The skin is rather thick, bluish-black, knitting a little. Barbarously biting into a grape, the first thing you feel is the insanely delicious sweet juice. Next comes the light, sour pulp. And here the first distinguishing feature from other grape varieties - the flesh of Isabella is similar to chewing jelly. Yes, there is something similar in drinks like Fruiting, where coconut jelly floats, only the pulp of the grapes is much softer, softer, juicier, tastier))HeyFORiYa
My Friendship is also 5 years old, taking into account the frozen greenery last year, I took off 7 kg, since there were few grapes, they ate everything. I took it off in mid-September, moderately sweet, there was a harmonious acid. Great nutmeg. As a friend said - the taste of childhood, now this is not sold. They started trying at the end of August. The bunch still hangs here, the acid is gone completely, very sweet, the nutmeg is a little gone, but you can feel it. So, in our latitude, we wait all the way for wine ... P.S. Lies well. 2 weeks at room temperature no problem. Probably because of the harsh skin, but crunches.Vitaly Kulikov
It is possible and necessary to grow grapes and delight yourself and your loved ones with the taste of this wonderful berry in any region. When there is a great desire to achieve a goal, any obstacle is surmountable. Plant this wonderful plant in your plots, get big yields, enjoy the unique taste of berries. Good luck to you!