Girlish grapes, or virgin grapes (lat.parthenocissus) - a genus of plants of the family Grape, which has about 10 species that grow wild in Asia and North America. The Latin name comes from the Greek words for "virgin" and "ivy" and is associated with the plant's ability to produce fruit without pollination. Three species of this genus are grown as ornamental plants.
Maiden grapes in landscape design have been used since the 17th century to decorate gazebos and terraces, decorate the walls of houses and outbuildings, create hedges and even as a ground cover plant.
Planting and caring for girlish grapes
- Landing: sowing seeds - throughout the season.
- Bloom: the plant is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, bright diffused light or partial shade.
- The soil: any cultivated, but best of all - loams with a reaction from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline.
- Watering: rare (3-4 times per season), but abundant (10 liters for each plant), between waterings, the soil in the near-stem circle should dry out.
- Top dressing: at the beginning of summer, Nitroammofoska is added to the water for irrigation, and in the middle of summer, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is added to the trunk circle. The trunk circle is mulched with compost, peat or humus, and the thickness of the mulch layer should be 5-6 cm. In the fall, this mulch is embedded in the soil.
- Garter: the plant needs support only until it begins to develop antennae, clinging to any roughness.
- Cropping: the plant needs formative pruning, which is best done in early spring.
- Reproduction: seeds, but more often in a vegetative way: cuttings, layering and root suckers.
- Pests: aphid.
- Diseases: rot.
Read more about the cultivation of maiden grapes below.
Many lovers consider this plant to be a wild grape, but this is not so: maiden grapes have nothing to do with edible grapes. It is a large deciduous, less often evergreen liana, the old branches of which are covered with dense bark. The leaves of the plant are complex, palmate, sometimes three-lobed, located on long petioles. In the spring and summer, the leaves of the maiden grape are dark green, and in the fall they take on a bright purple hue. Curly shoots of liana, clinging to the support with branched antennae, can reach a length of 15-20 m. Scalate hanging inflorescences develop opposite to leaves or in their axils. Inflorescences consist of bisexual or staminate flowers with a greenish corolla. The fruit is an inedible dark blue berry.
What is the appeal of girlish grapes for gardeners and designers? It is decorative throughout the season, provides a dense camouflage curtain, is not afraid of frost, grows on any soil, it does not need a large feeding area, it is resistant to diseases and pests, it grows very quickly, does not require feeding, it multiplies easily and perfectly protects any walls from dust, overheating, rain, wind, and also eliminates dampness near the foundation and even indoors.
The plant also has disadvantages: firstly, grape shoots crawl under the roof and destroy it, and if they fall into the gutter, they clog the drain. Secondly, the aggressive roots of the maiden grape spread for several meters around, causing disturbance to other plants, and can cause the destruction of the foundation. Thirdly, girlish grapes wake up for a very long time in spring, and the sight of its naked, matted shoots against the background of a green garden does not inspire optimism.
However, if you wish, you can put up with all these shortcomings, since the decorativeness and unpretentiousness of girlish grapes is beyond praise.
Planting maiden grapes in the garden
When and where to plant
There are many ways to propagate girlish grapes, but if you are in no hurry and love experimentation, we recommend that you try growing girlish grapes from seeds. Sowing can be done throughout the season. Before sowing in spring or summer, seeds must be stratified by first holding them in cold water to swell, then placing them in a container of damp sand and placing them in a vegetable drawer of the refrigerator for two months, where they are kept at about 5 ºC. If you decide to sow the seeds of girlish grapes before winter, at the end of September or early October, then you only need to keep them for 3-4 days in cold water for swelling, and you do not need to stratify them: during the winter months in the soil they will undergo natural stratification, and will rise together next year. Whenever you sow a girl's grape, its seeds are pre-soaked in water.
Maiden grapes do not care where to grow, however, its decorative effect directly depends on the degree of illumination: the color of grape leaves in the sun is always brighter. And girlish grapes grow faster in a sunny area. Maiden grapes grow poorly where a cold wind blows in autumn. Do not plant the plant near water pipes, sewers, or wires. Better to choose a location near plastered brick walls, concrete or wooden fences, gazebos or sheds.
How to plant
As already mentioned, any cultivated soil is suitable for girl grapes, but the best soil for it is loamy soils with a neutral, slightly acidic or slightly alkaline pH. Seeds are sown in loosened soil to a depth of 1 cm, sealed and watered.
Maiden grape care
Growing maiden grapes basically boils down to sparse watering during prolonged droughts, removing weeds and pruning lashes, but if you want to see the plant in its best shape, take a little time than necessary.
Young plants need support until they develop tenacious tendrils that can hold the vine on a rough surface. You will have to water the maiden grapes 3-4 times per season, spending 10 liters of water for each plant at a time. Watering is carried out when the topsoil dries out under the bush.
At the very beginning of summer, Nitroammofoska should be added to the water for irrigation, and at the height of the season it is advisable to feed the girl's grapes with complex mineral fertilizer. After watering or rain, the soil around the plant needs to be loosened, and if you find areas with bare roots, add soil under the grapes. A good effect is given by mulching the trunk circle with a layer of compost, humus or peat 6 cm thick - in the fall, mulch is embedded in the soil, and a new one is poured on top.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to transplant a bush of maiden grapes to a more suitable place for it. The sooner this need arises, the easier it will be to transplant a bush, although there are cases of successful movement of bushes of five and even more mature age.
Prepare in advance a hole for a plant of approximately the same size as the root system of a bush, together with an earthen lump, but deeper. At the bottom of the pit, pour a layer of drainage (broken brick, crushed stone or crushed ceramic tiles) about 15 cm thick, pour a twenty centimeter layer of sand on top, and then fill the hole to the middle with a mixture of leaf earth, humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.
Two weeks later, when the soil in the pit has settled and compacted, cut the lashes of the girl's grapes so that it is convenient for you to transplant it, dig out the bush, transfer it to a piece of thick cloth or oilcloth and drag it to the new pit. It doesn’t matter if you don’t know how to preserve all the roots of the maiden grape - it will recover very quickly if the new place suits it.
How to plant girlish grapes? Dip an earthen ball with roots into the hole and cover the remaining space with the same soil mixture. The root collar of the bush should remain at ground level. After transplanting, water the bush, add more soil, if necessary, and compact the surface.
If you have doubts about whether the bush will take root, add a little root former - Epin or Kornevin to the hole before planting.
The first two to three years after sowing or planting, girlish grapes are unattractive, but when the active growth of shoots begins, it is very important to form the skeleton of the plant in such a way that the lashes grow in the right direction and at the right distance from each other, forming a certain shape and reasonable density. Form the crown of the bush with a garden pruner. Do not delay the beginning of pruning, do not allow the lignification of the shoots and, while they are still green, direct them in the direction you want and fix on the support. Remove excess shoots by cutting over a healthy bud.
When the skeletal branches are formed, you will only have to carry out a sanitary cleaning of the bush in the spring and limit the growth of shoots, not allowing them to grow, otherwise the girlish grapes will turn into lush sloppy thickets. It is especially important to keep the maiden grape hedge in good shape.
Pests and diseases
Neither disease nor pests show interest in maiden grapes, but with improper care, the plant can rot, as the appearance of the leaves will tell you. Remove diseased leaves and shoots, stop watering the grapes, and treat the plant with a fungicide solution.
If any pest settles on the girl's grapes, feel free to resort to treating the plant with an insecticide.
Propagation by cuttings
You already know how to grow girlish grapes from seeds, but the simplest and most affordable way to propagate a plant is by cuttings. How to propagate girlish grapes by cuttings? After cutting the plant, there are segments of lashes and shoots that can be used as cuttings. Lignified cuttings as thick as a pencil, on which there are 3-5 healthy buds, take root more easily.
Cutting, like sowing maiden grapes, can be carried out during the entire growing season. Take a suitable branch and cut from it cuttings 25-30 cm long with the required number of buds. Dig holes 7-10 cm deep in the prepared area at a distance of 1.5-2 m from each other, place the cuttings of the maiden grapes so that there are at least two buds underground, fill the holes, compact the surface and water the planting. In the hot summer, the seedlings of maiden grapes need to be watered regularly until they begin to actively grow. And do not forget to protect them from direct sunlight at first.
Reproduction by layering
Spread the lash of maiden grapes on the ground, attach it to the ground with hairpins or hooks and sprinkle with fertile soil in places where the lash has buds. Water the cuttings, and after a while, roots will begin to grow from the buds. If the lash is short, it is completely laid in the dug groove, leaving only the top on the surface, which must be raised to a height of 15-20 cm.The lash laid in the furrow is covered with earth and watered regularly, and when it takes root and shoots, the lash is separated from the mother bush ...
Reproduction by root suckers
This is also a convenient way of breeding girlish grapes: root suckers are dug out of the soil and planted in a new place, where the seedlings grow for a year or two. The root collar during transplantation should be at the same level as it was. When the seedlings get stronger, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Girlish grapes in winter
Maiden grapes overwinter in frosty air: they are cold-resistant and able to withstand severe cold snaps. If you fear that the winter will be too cold for the plant, put fresh mulch under the bush, and spruce branches on top of it, remove the lashes from the support, lay them on a bed of spruce branches and throw spruce branches on top. This cover will be enough. However, make sure that the grapes do not dry out in winter.
As you can see, planting and caring for girlish grapes is so simple that even a novice gardener can do it.
Types and varieties
Five-leafed maiden grape (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)
Or virgin grape. Most often, a girl's five-leaf grape is grown in culture. This fast-growing shade-tolerant species comes from the east of North America, where it is found in moist forests and thickets of shrubs on rich moist soils. This is a large liana, the lashes of which can reach a length of 20 m. Young shoots of the plant are reddish, but with age they turn green. Antennae with 3-8 ramifications end in thickenings. The leaves of this species are complex, palmate, consisting of oblong or ovate petiolate leaves up to 10 cm long with a pointed tip. The color of the upper side of the leaves is dark green, the lower side of the leaves is lighter, with a bluish tint. Umbellate apical inflorescences consist of 3-6 flowers. Fruits - blue-black berries with a bluish bloom.
This species is durable, easily reproduces in different ways, tolerates urban conditions well, is not damaged by fungi and insects. It is so winter-hardy that it hibernates in the middle lane without shelter. However, five-leaf maiden grapes in Siberia still require warming for the winter. In culture, the species has been since 1622. The most valuable decorative forms of five-leaf grapes are:
- Engelman - small-leaved form of the main type;
- wall - antennae of this variety have numerous ramifications with thickened suction cups, which allow the lashes to climb a smooth sheer surface;
- hairy - less winter-hardy, but more attractive form with shoots and leaves painted in reddish shades, the underside of which is pubescent;
- Saint-Paul - a plant with shoots pubescent at a young age and elongated inflorescences, the antennae of which have up to 12 branches;
- Star Showers - this variety has marble-colored foliage: in the warm season - green with white spots, and in autumn the spots turn pink, and the leaves turn red.
Tri-pointed maiden grape (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)
Or ivy originally from Japan, China, the Korean Peninsula and the extreme southwest of Primorye. It is a vine with branched tendrils and a large number of suckers. Diverse in shape, smooth, as if varnished, leaves up to 20 cm in diameter on one plant can be triangular, or three-lobed, or rounded, and without lobes, or heart-shaped. In the spring, the leaves are bright purple, in the fall they acquire a golden yellow, bronze or bright red hue. Small, unattractive flowers form oblong clusters of inflorescences. The fruits of this species are the same bluish-black with a bluish bloom, as in the five-leafed maiden grapes.
Tri-pointed grapes copes well with dust and smoke, but they are not particularly hardy, although they are able to withstand short frosts down to -15 ºC. It is successfully cultivated in Ukraine, but in the middle zone this grape freezes in winter. The decorative qualities of this species are admirable. Most often, tri-pointed maiden grapes are used to decorate walls. This species has been cultivated since 1862. The most popular in landscape design are the following forms of triangular grapes:
- Vicha - a plant with small leaves, simple or consisting of three leaves;
- purple - form with dark purple leaves throughout the growing season;
- golden - a plant with marble leaves: golden yellow spots on the green foliage.
Attached maiden grape (Parthenocissus inserta)
This is a vine up to 3 m long, the stems of which rise up with the help of underdeveloped suckers and antennae. The plant has beautiful palmate-compound leaves, consisting of 3-5 ovoid or elliptical leaflets with a wedge-shaped base and a sharp tip. The upper side of the leaves is dark green, shiny, the lower is matte and lighter. This species is grown in Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic countries and southern Russia, but in the middle lane the attached maiden grapes suffer from frost.
In addition to those described, sometimes in the culture you can find such types of maiden grapes as seven-leaf, Henry and Thomson.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Grape
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
- Information about Vines
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Shrubs Ornamental deciduous Lianas Plants on D Grape
Kniphofia (knifofia): varieties, planting, care and cultivation, reviews
Knifofia is a very original and bright decorative flowering plant that immediately attracts attention in the flower bed. It cannot be called very popular with Russian gardeners - many are scared off by the “exoticism” of the flower, suggesting capriciousness. But growing and caring for knifofia doesn't require a lot of experience. The choice of varieties allows you to "fit" it into a variety of compositions in the flower beds.
- What the characteristics of bnifophy look like
- Winter hardiness of knifofia
- Types and varieties of knifophy
- Knifofia Tukka
- Flaming Torch
- Berry knifofia
- Dr. Kerr
- Hybrid knifofia
- Royal Standard
- Bernox's Truimph
- Prince Maurito
- Reproduction methods
- Growing knifofia from seeds at home
- Dividing the bush
- How to grow knifofia
- Terms and conditions of boarding
- How to plant the seeds of bnifophya
- Follow-up care
- Preparing for winter
- Diseases and pests
- What plants is combined with
- Reviews about knifophy
Description of the plant
Feverfew - the plant is endowed with erect shoots with an average height of about 70 cm. The root system is fibrous. Shoots can be ascending or erect, almost always with a fringe. The root system is well developed and penetrates deep into the soil. This property allows pyrethrum to be ranked among drought-resistant plants.
Photo of the Pyrethrum flower
The green foliage of the dissected-feathery form forms a rosette. Several small leaf plates are observed on the stem, arranged in a checkerboard pattern. The stem is crowned with an inflorescence up to 6 cm in diameter. The flower basket is endowed with long petals, which can be colored in various tones (white, yellow, crimson, pink, lilac, lilac). The lush core is "populated" with small tubular flowers.
After the plant is pollinated and blooms, brown seeds are formed, which will be suitable for sowing for 3 years.
Persian chamomile (feverfew) - video
In the literature, more than 50 types of pyrethrum are mentioned.
Among those in demand are the following types and varieties of plants:
This type of plant can be identified by the shoots branching in the upper part. In appearance, they resemble chrysanthemums. The height of the bush does not exceed 50 cm. At the top of the plant there are bright inflorescences with a lush core, similar to a pompom, measuring 2 cm in diameter. The color of the maiden feverfew flower is white or yellow.
Photo of a flower Feverfew maiden
Famous varieties of maiden feverfew are:
- "Gold Ball" (Sun bunny) with double yellow inflorescences
- "White Stars" is a small plant up to 25 cm in height with white inflorescences.
This type of perennial plant is distinguished by significant growth, up to 150 cm. Stems are weakly branched. The foliage is long and large, dissected in shape. Inflorescences of large-leaved pyrethrum, 10 cm in diameter, consist of small white flowers.
Photo of a flower Pyrethrum large-leaved
The pink type of pyrethrum reaches an average bush height of 70 cm. The foliage of the dissected form is light green in color. Flower baskets are located in the apical part. They have a yellow core and pale pink smooth petals. Blooms in the first summer month.
Popular varieties of pink pyrethrum are:
- "Kelway Glorious" with lush scarlet flowers
- "Atrosanguinea" large flowers with a yellow center and smooth red petals
- "Brenda" flowers of complex double shape with pink petals.
Photo of pyrethrum pink "Kelway Glorious"
Photo of pyrethrum pink "Brenda"
Feverfew is beautiful
Pyrethrum pulchrum is found in Mongolia, China, Central Asia, Kazakhstan. In natural conditions, it prefers the tundra climate, rocky slopes, the proximity of glaciers. These are low bushes up to 50 cm tall with weak foliage. The foliage is long, 2 cm wide and 15 cm long. Flowers pyrethrum beautiful can be solitary or create inflorescences of 2-3 pieces. The petals are white, and the ligulate flowers are gray.
Photo of a beautiful pyrethrum flower
Pyrethrum corymbosum grows naturally in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Altai, preferring meadows and steppes. The plant has erect shoots branched to the top. The foliage is long, up to 30 cm. The shape of the leaf plates is dissected. Closer to the top, the foliage is smaller. Inflorescences are loose, corymbose, consisting of 15-17 flowers. The petals are white and the central part is gray. The flowering period of corymbose pyrethrum begins in the first summer month.
Pyrethrum cinerariifolium has another name - Dalmatian chamomile. The bush does not exceed 45 cm in height. The leaf plates are grayish-green in color. The flower baskets have a pale yellow color of the petals and a gray core.
Photo of a flower pyrethrum cinerarielous
Pyrethrum coccineum has another name - Caucasian chamomile.
Feverfew is found in the Caucasus. Depending on the variety, the central part of the flower can be painted in different colors (red, cherry, burgundy). Individuals with double flowers are found. The foliage has a complex structure - double dissected and feathery.
Necessary conditions for growing
Adult specimens are compact, branched bushes. When planting, you should take into account their dimensions, leave free space between the plants.
It is important to choose the right site for the location of feverfew. In an unsuitable environment, the culture loses its decorative effect, it can get sick and die. Nevertheless, the variety is very unpretentious, does not require the creation of any special conditions or complex agricultural techniques for planting and care.
Location and lighting
Planting maiden feverfew should be in areas open to the sun. Light partial shade is permissible, but in a strong shade, the shoots stretch out, thin out, the leaves become smaller, flowering is almost absent. For this reason, shading should be avoided.
The culture is thermophilic; if possible, it is recommended to protect it from drafts and gusts of wind.
The soil for feverfew girlish is like any, special preparation is not required. The main condition is that there is no flooding, groundwater close to the soil surface.
The fertility of the land directly affects the size of the inflorescences. With sufficient nutrition, large, numerous flowers are formed. If the soil is acidic, it is recommended to add wood ash or lime before planting.
Diseases and pests of Buddley David
Fortunately, this beautiful ornamental shrub is rarely affected by diseases and pests. He may have 2 diametrically opposite problems: as previously reported, due to excess moisture and dampness, the shoots can be struck by gray rot or even "black leg". The fight against it is described above. The second problem can arise, on the contrary, from extreme dryness, a whitefly or spider mite can occupy the bush.
Prevention is precisely regular watering, spraying the foliage. If the condition of the shoots is completely deplorable, they are cut off and burned, on the remaining bush the shoots are treated with special means.
In landscaping, Buddley David is mainly a garden accent, a bright spot. It looks harmoniously and elegantly against the background of flat lawns, hedges made from it are very decorative. Small varieties can be planted in tubs and grown on terraces and entrances. With proper care, Buddley David is a very ornamental shrub that pleases the owners with its beauty and aroma.
Many gardeners choose the propagation method by cuttings because of the less laboriousness and time that they have to withstand before obtaining planting material. After cutting their vines placed in open groundwhere they take root rather quickly.
To obtain high-quality planting material, this work is carried out in the following order:
- propagation requires cuttings with at least four buds
- in the prepared hole, the cutting should be placed in such a way that two buds are located above the ground
- planting must necessarily end with watering
- to avoid burns, it is recommended to protect the garden from direct sunlight
- you can get good seedlings if the soil is constantly moistened.
Reproduction by layering
This method of obtaining seedlings of wild grapes may be of interest to those who already have mature bushes on the site. In this case, planting and caring for young plants can be carried out immediately after choosing a place for a new bush.
The very process of reproduction in this way is carried out in the following order:
- At the beginning of spring, you need to outline the vines at the age of two to three years.
- Further, they are bent to the ground and fixed in this position.
- The place of the bend must be covered with fertile soil.
- While waiting for the rooting of the cuttings, it is necessary to irrigate regularly.
- After a year, a full-fledged root system will form at the cuttings, after which they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
After receiving the planting material and transplanting it, the main care measures will be reduced to the removal of excess shoots and the installation of special supports for the growth of vines.
Although branches can often climb the walls of a building on their own, however, many gardeners come to their aid, specially installing the fence, for example, a chain-link.
Young bushes of maiden grapes experience the need for moisture only at a young age. Adult bushes have enough moisture, which comes with precipitation and from internal reserves.
Caring for perennials is also simplified because the owner does not have to carry out sheltering measures for the winter. However, for young plantings, this activity is mandatory.
For better assimilation of fertilizers, it is recommended to carry out top dressing while watering the grapes. To do this, you can use a nitroammophoska. In order to stimulate the growth of grapes, it is useful to apply complex fertilizers to the soil.
Maiden grapes respond well with active growth if measures are taken to improve the quality of the soil. Therefore, in addition to loosening, it is also recommended before planting. add peat to the soil and humus.
Fertility can be increased by fertilizing the soil with two-year compost. The mulching operation is quite effective, during which sawdust or rotted foliage can be used.
Any suburban area, as well as a house located on it, can look unusual if you use an original approach to its design. One such idea could be the use of girlish grapes.
This ornamental plant is capable of forming long shoots that can hide any tall buildings, creating medieval effect.
Naturally, the cultivation of this plant has its own characteristics. Particular attention should be paid to young seedlings, since they not only need regular watering, but also frost protection.
However, adult plants are unpretentious, so only pruningif he wants to restrict the further spread of the grapes.