In the fall, the work in the garden does not end at all. Plants after fruiting need "support" to recuperate. It will provide feeding with special "autumn" fertilizers.
"Autumn" fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden: composition and recommendations for use
"Autumn" complex fertilizers make up for the deficiency of nutrients in the soil, formed due to their active consumption by horticultural crops during the active growing season. Their main feature is a minimum (or complete absence) of nitrogen in the presence of a full set of other macro- and microelements necessary for plants. Nitrogen is excluded, since it stimulates the process of growing green mass, which is completely unnecessary for plants before winter.
Such fertilizers are applied to the planting hole when planting any fruit trees and berry bushes in the fall, into the soil as part of the preparation of the beds for planting winter onions and garlic. They are also needed for decorative leafy and decorative flowering perennial flowers, trees and shrubs, and a lawn.
"Autumn" fertilizers, applied when digging the beds, provide winter crops with rapid rooting and improve their frost resistance
For garden strawberries that finish fruiting early enough, "autumn" feeding is applied in the summer, in mid or late August. Planting pits and beds are prepared in such a way that at least a month remains before the first frost. The exact term depends on the region. In the Urals and Siberia, this is the first half of September, in the middle zone - the end of September and the beginning of October, in the south - all of October and the first decade of November.
Perennials are fed at the end of the active growing season. Trees or shrubs must shed their foliage, herbaceous plants must bloom and dry completely.
Fruit trees, as a rule, are distinguished by high yields, therefore, feeding in the fall is especially necessary for them.
Video: features of fertilization in the fall
Popular and effective "autumn" fertilizers, judging by the gardeners' reviews, are:
- OMU Autumn from Buyskie Fertilizers. Chlorine-free organomineral granular fertilizer. Contains phosphorus, potassium, trace elements (magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron), humates. It is applied exclusively in dry form. Granules (80–120 g / m²) are scattered over the garden or near the trunk circle, embedded in the soil. Then watering is required. The release form provides a slow flow of nutrients into the soil, eliminating the risk of oversaturation and their rapid leaching.
OMU Autumn from "Buyskie Fertilizers" does not contain chlorine, which many plants do not like or do not tolerate at all
- OMU Autumn for lawns from "Buy Fertilizers". The composition is almost identical to the previous fertilizer, but it contains nitrogen (2%), less humic compounds (2.9% versus 13.5%), and molybdenum from microelements. The dosage is 30-50 g / m².
OMU Autumn for lawns from "Buyskie Fertilizers" is applied after cleaning the lawn from plant debris and the last mowing
- Garden. Autumn from Fertika. Contains nitrogen (5%), phosphorus and potassium (21 and 31%, respectively) in an easily assimilable form. From trace elements - calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc. The application rate is from 30–40 to 80–100 g / m², depending on how poor your soil is.
Garden. Autumn from Fertika - fertilizer, the application rate of which depends on the fertility of the soil
- Universal. Summer-autumn from Bona Forte. Increases cold resistance of plants. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, it contains magnesium and sulfur, which improve their absorption and a complex of microelements in a chelated form. In this form, they are completely absorbed, a prolonged action is provided. The average rate is 25-60 g / m².
Universal. Summer-Autumn from Bona Forte - a top dressing that helps plants to overwinter with minimal or no damage to themselves
- Gumi-Omi Autumn from OZhZ Kuznetsov. Organomineral fertilizer. The share of organic matter - 20%, sodium humate - 3%. Also contains nitrogen (1%), phosphorus (5%), potassium (8%), from trace elements - copper, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, boron. The recommended dosage is about 100 g / m².
Gumi-Omi Autumn from OZhZ Kuznetsov - organic fertilizer containing humates
Video: popular "autumn" complex fertilizers
"Autumn" fertilizers help horticultural crops to recover the strength spent on fruiting and properly prepare for winter. Therefore, their introduction should not be neglected in any way.
Smart fertilization: 5 principles of effective feeding of fruit trees
An orchard is usually laid out for one purpose - to obtain a harvest. Moreover - abundant, healthy and for many years, so that the second goal (to leave a good memory of yourself) is also achieved. And now, it would seem, the trees are growing, they seem to be healthy, but the return is not the same: you cannot wait for it, and the quality is not very good. What is the problem, what has been done wrong? In the book by Nikolai Kurdyumov "The Most Complete Encyclopedia of the Garden and Vegetable Garden", we found useful and sometimes unexpected recommendations for the competent fertilization of fruit trees.
How to get a good harvest?
Ammonium nitrate - formula and composition of fertilizer
This substance is a powder or granules of white color with a yellowish sheen. Granular ammonium nitrate has the same properties as powder, and decomposes slightly more slowly in soil.
This drug has other names:
- nitric acid salt
- ammonium nitrate.
Ammonium nitrate formula: NH4NO3... Some manufacturers introduce sulfur into its composition, which is also required by cultivated plants for active growth. The percentage of this trace element in ammonium nitrate is up to 13%.
There are several varieties of this drug, depending on the additional elements that make up it:
- Indian saltpeter - in addition to active nitrogen, it also contains potassium. As a result, this fertilizer, when applied to the soil, simultaneously contributes to the growth of vegetative mass by the plant, and also prepares it for active budding and fruit ripening.
- Norwegian - it contains carbonate (as lime), magnesia and potassium. During the production of the drug, its granules are exposed to oil products that decompose for a long time in the soil. As a result, nutrients enter the soil in portions over a long period.
- Ammonium nitrate B, which contains nitrogen, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, potassium.
- Magnesium, in this preparation, magnesium ions are part of the crystal lattice of the substance.
- Ammonized calcium nitrate... This fertilizer can be applied to almost all cultivated plants, fruit trees and shrubs. The drug prevents soils from acidifying, maintaining their neutral or slightly acidic reaction.
Vegetable growers, gardeners and florists leave feedback on the use of various types of Fertik fertilizers.
More than 20 years ago, a Finnish fertilizer manufacturer Kemira appeared on the Russian market. According to customer reviews, it is a very good fertilizer, since it was produced using a new technology: all the substances that make up the composition were purified and completely absorbed by plants. Soon the trade mark was bought by a Norwegian concern and the name of the fertilizer changed. Now it is called Fertika.
Manufacturing facilities are located in several European countries, including Russia. Products are still made from imported raw materials and have not lost their quality, the range is increasing, new species are being developed, adapted to the conditions and soils of Russia, as well as the climate of the middle zone.
Effective fungicides for indoor plants
Alas, indoor plants are also exposed to all kinds of mycoses. And in this case, it is also advisable to use various antifungal agents, including:
- Fitosporin-M. Biological fungicide, which is considered one of the safest for plants and low toxicity for humans and animals, defined by IV class of toxicity. It is also suitable for the effective treatment of bacterial infections when used as an aqueous solution.
- Baktofit. Another organic antifungal and antibacterial drug that can be used not only for the treatment of indoor plants, but also on garden and grain crops.
- Planzir. This low-risk biological antifungal agent has become very popular also because it is also suitable for soil cultivation, which is especially important when carrying out complex disinfection.
- Potassium permanganate. Potassium permanganate is also suitable for disinfection of soil and various soil mixtures, provided that weak concentrations of a universal pink solution are used.
- Soda ash. This tool is effective in the fight against fungal infections only when used in combination with green soap, used as a kind of adhesive.
Such store products as Oksikhom, Tsineb, Tiram, Trichodermin, Barrier, Alirin-B, etc., have proven themselves quite well in the processing of decorative deciduous and flowering crops.
The cost of these funds depends on the country of origin, composition and other factors. But usually we are talking about quite acceptable price tags.
At the first stage of the disease, the concentrated preparation Fitosporin is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20 and the plants are treated completely. If necessary, repeat the procedure after 1.5 weeks.
If the culture is severely damaged by the disease, then the concentrate is diluted in a 1: 2 ratio. Spraying must be repeated after 1.5 weeks.
At the same time, 1 liter of solution is required for 10 m2.
Phytosporin from scab on fruit trees and shrubs
For the treatment of horticultural crops against scab, Fitosporin should be diluted in the following concentration: dissolve 5 g of powder in a bucket of water, mix thoroughly and they should process the root, as far as they can get from the garden stairs. Usually, treatment with this fungicide is combined with spraying with a growth stimulant, which is bred as follows: 1 ml of Zircon is diluted in a bucket of water.
Photo of scab on fruit trees
The first treatment with Phytosporin against scab is carried out at the moment of active blooming of the foliage of an apple, pear, plum, apricot and other fruit trees, the second - when the size of the fruits becomes approximately the size of a quail's egg.
Application of the drug Fitosporin for tomatoes and cucumbers
It should be especially noted that this fungicide is actively used for preventive treatments and treatment of diseases on tomatoes and cucumbers. These vegetable crops require special care, and are also often subject to various diseases that often severely damage the plants. As a result, the yield of tomatoes and cucumbers drops sharply. To prevent this from happening, vegetable growers use Fitosporin at different stages of development of these plants - from soaking seed material to processing plants during the period of active ripening of fruits.
Many vegetable growers hesitate to use most of the chemicals in the fight against diseases - these substances usually get into the fruits and are not removed from them for a long time (up to 3 weeks), therefore, such fungicides cannot be used to process vegetable crops about 18-20 days before the start of harvest harvest. In addition, it is not recommended to use conventional fungicides during the flowering period, since harmful substances accumulate in the flowers, pass into the ovaries, and then into the fruits. Eating such vegetables is not good for the human body.
For tomatoes, one of the most dangerous diseases is late blight, which damages not only foliage, but also ripening fruits. Usually late blight begins to actively appear on tomatoes in the second half of summer, when the humidity is high, and the difference between night and day temperatures becomes significant.
To combat such a serious disease as late blight of tomatoes, Fitosporin-M is actively used at all stages of plant growing. - from soaking seed material and soil treatment for seedlings, in beds and in greenhouses, to processing tomato bushes from the moment they are planted in open ground.
Photo of tomato disease - late blight
The optimum temperature for the active action of the hay stick is 21-23 degrees Celsius. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to treat tomato and cucumber bushes with the following solution of the fungicide Fitosporin: 5 g of a powdery preparation is diluted in a bucket of water, the solution is left in a dark place for a couple of hours to activate bacterial spores, and then the treatment is carried out - best on a cloudy day or at sunset.
When processing these vegetables with Fitosporin in the open field, you need to remember - in cool weather, it is better not to carry out this procedure - the activity of bacteria at such a temperature is significantly reduced.
How to protect tomatoes from late blight. Phytosporin - video
Mineral fertilizers are good
A tree is not a tomato - it cannot be fed for this year's harvest. Today's flowers are a product of last summer. You will fertilize every year, you will grow firewood. The task is different - to provide him with a long-term supply of the necessary nutrition. Give it at the right time - enough for several years. And do not just bring in according to average recommendations - but taking into account the content of the elements. Then the garden behaves as in Kondakov's experiments.
Here's an example. Looking at the soil analysis figures, only 60 g of ammonia nitrogen per tree was introduced into the furrows. Now follow the schedule. In the first summer, the increase was half as much as in the control fertilized “at the rate”. In the second - only 10% more: trees massively laid fruit. First Harvest - Double the Control. Then 4 years - the harvests are higher, and the gains are less control. For 6 years, the experimental trees gave 72% more than the control: 691 c / ha. After another 2 years, the control was twice as high, firewood grew there!
Smart fertilization results in a good harvest
So it goes. Feed the seedling really according to science, and there is no need to chop the roots, ring and furrow - and by other means to fight with your own money thrown into fertilizer fertilizers. Do not cut the young trees that have been fed - you will not have to wait for the harvest for 5 years.
Whatever one may say, but it is still true: the point is not in the mineral fertilizers themselves, but in how they are used. Proven fact: fruits are not contaminated with nitrates. Simply due to the woodiness of fruit crops, nitrates do not reach the fruit - they are processed in growth. The soil can also not be polluted: everything will be assimilated. Scientists in Europe have already come to the conclusion that the normal dose of fertilizer for the garden is only 50–70 kg of NPK1 per hectare. Half a kilo per hundred square meters. And this - for several years, until the first fall in the crop and the first pruning.
Fruits are not contaminated with nitrates
Like this. Alexander Konstantinovich wrote about fertilizers, but it turned out to be a small encyclopedia of gardening. This is what distinguishes a true Scientist: he sees and links all conceivable factors! We just need to take advantage of the results of his labors and fertilize our garden wisely.
The book "The most complete encyclopedia of the garden and vegetable garden", which can be purchased in the official online store of the publishing house, makes it possible to understand basic agronomic knowledge easily and with humor. Nikolai Kurdyumov, a well-known author and popularizer of natural agriculture, shares his knowledge and best practices that will be useful to both beginners and experienced summer residents.
Eh, I haven't picked up checkers for a long time ©
A lean year - no need to fertilize. Food is not used up - you will only harm. ©
I fertilized, I fertilize, and I will fertilize! Bad year, good year, trees are not stakes - they need to live! In addition to the harvest, they also feed themselves! Prepare them for winter, grow roots, heal sores, improve their health. If they are adults, they have a lot of tasks to complete.
Did the pruning, do not try to fertilize: everything will go into a burdock. Pruning as a technique is tantamount to fertilizing! ©
Similarly, see item 1.
Pruning is an intensification of generative processes. This is an increased consumption of nutrients, already at the expense of the rest of the plant. Therefore, the immunity of the plant falls, it is easier to capture sores and pests. And naturally, this will affect the future harvest.
Therefore - to feed, feed, and feed again.
It is not necessary to fertilize with nitrogen in the spring: there is enough ammonium in the soil. If you fertilize, you will drive out the "burdocks", you will postpone the formation of flower buds from June to September and you will not get normal flowers next year. Fertilization time is late summer and autumn.
50/50. Yes, the main task is autumn feeding. Certainly. But I feed both in spring and in the middle of summer. Yes, it was, in the season before last, either from this, or from the fact that there was no summer, Antonovka (1 piece) gave out a bunch of ovaries to the mountain in the fall (I met this for the first time). Having read cigarettes like sabzh, I thought there would be no apples. Lies. The photo of this Antonovka is already here. It's a miracle, not apples. In immeasurable numbers.
And yes, I don't use nitrogen at all. If only as part of complex fertilizers. But in the summer, in principle, potassium or ash is used for feeding.
4. Saplings are checked, but here is a pear scion on a mountain ash - I cut it, I cut it and I will cut it - pears break branches at a time)
5. If you want to get large fruits for a longer time, without spending money on fertilizers, ration the harvest. Remove excess ovaries. The optimum is known: 1 apple every 10-15 cm of a branch. That is, a three-year-old with a 6 cm thick stem can bear about 20 kg of selected fruits.
50/50 Well, a three-year-old can be used for soup or porridge - there is practically no tree height. If you want to curl her curls, if you want, on a bald shave.
But when from 4 meters and above, and you are no longer the first youth, and the second is already behind you, the rationing of ovaries and fruits - it somehow does not sound. Moreover, just at this time, almost everyone has thunderstorms, squally winds, and just hurricanes. They will normalize, do not hesitate) If the trees are pruned and in the correct position, they will not break, you can not be afraid. True, last season it was not possible to wait for such a normalization, I had to go to shake it off several times. But this is so-so business. Antonovka did not succumb to such tricks at all, and even the Chinese woman had the ovaries fastened with screws. But it's not a problem! When it is harvested, it still goes gradually (for most varieties) And therefore, the remaining fruits also gain weight and sweetness. Perhaps there are some nuances with winter varieties, but they are usually standardized by themselves, it is not for nothing that they hang for a long time.
And yes, this all refers to the fact that feeding is carried out in the holes, along the perimeter of the crown. Why in the holes? Because the depth on the bayonet of the shovel is not serious. On a shovel bayonet - this is a garden turf (minimum) Checked repeatedly. Those. The turf will bloom and smell, but whether it has reached the tree is an unanswered question.
But most importantly, a garden, like a vegetable garden, requires the correct acidity of the soil. Without the correct acidity, there will be no proper feeding, and not just a harvest, but possibly the real death of trees.
As an example, so as not to be unfounded.
Apple-tree Izolda Stepanovna, autumn variety, photo 06.10.18.