The well is convenient because it is an excellent alternative to centralized water supply; such a water source on the site solves problems with irrigation and the use of life-giving moisture for household needs. But it is necessary to carry out preventive work from time to time so that the well is clean and the system works properly, so many owners of summer cottages are thinking about how to clean the well with their own hands, without spending a lot of money on it.
If the water pressure has become weaker, this is the first alarm signal. This is usually followed by a brief stagnation with a characteristic gurgling and subsequent release of turbid water, and then the system stops working.
Do-it-yourself well cleaning begins with determining the cause of the breakdown. There can be many reasons for this: problems often arise during irregular operation, errors during drilling and construction. Aquifers can change their direction - in this case, the reason will be natural.
If the structure does not have protective mechanisms, much more debris will enter the wellhead. This could be due to lack of maintenance or poor pump performance.
There are two main types of wells (with a filter and a straight bore) and three main ways to set up a well: flush it, pump it, or blow it out.
It is more convenient to clean the water intake with a straight barrel - the equipment can be lowered to the bottom, thereby eliminating the risk of quick siltation. But with irregular operation, any well will sooner or later become clogged.
Scheme of a well device with a strainer. Many summer residents recommend using filters rather than chlorinating the water. But sooner or later any well will need cleaning, so we choose a convenient method based on its features.
The most affordable independent way of cleaning a summer well from sand and silt is pumping.
Method # 1 - using a standard vibration pump
If you have a regular pump or a special one that is used for polluted water, you can pump out both a mixture of silt and sand, and debris with small stones. A pump is installed at the bottom of the well, and all the debris deposited on the bottom enters the pipe and is sucked in by the pump. From time to time, clean water must also be passed through the pump. If the case gets very hot, it means that the equipment should be allowed to rest. It is possible to clean the well with a standard vibration pump of the Malysh type; if it is shallow, the pump will drop to a maximum of 40 meters.
The pump is at the bottom of the well, water with impurities is sucked into the branch pipe and thrown out. Clean water is passed through the pump from time to time to keep the working surfaces clean. For the safety of the equipment, it is better to turn it off once or twice to avoid overheating.
Method # 2 - cleaning the well with a bailer
If the well is slightly clogged, and at the same time itself is shallow, you can use a bailer. In other cases, its application will be ineffective. If the depth is within 30m or more, you will need a winch as well, and this method of cleaning will require a lot of effort from two strong men.
A bailer is a piece of pipe on a cable with a mesh at the top and a hole at the bottom. It sinks to the bottom, then rises to a height of 0.5 m and drops sharply. Water is drawn inside, a metal ball is located inside the cylinder, which rises after a couple of seconds, and then descends and closes the hole. This lifting-lowering cycle is repeated three to four times, then the thief rises and is cleaned of sand. To work more conveniently, you can use a tripod. At a time, about 0.5 kg of sand gets into the cylinder, so by cleaning in this way, you can find out how quickly the well is clogged.
Photo and diagram of the bailer device. Reviews about this method of cleaning a well are both positive and negative. To some, this method of cleaning seems to be very laborious and ineffective, someone only uses it. If you can make the bailer yourself, such cleaning will not require extra expenses, and this is already a plus
Method # 3 - mechanized cleaning
The most effective method for deep wells is mechanized cleaning. The best option is to use two pumps working in pairs.
A downhole pump equipped with a lower hydraulic intake is located at the bottom of the well. It lifts up water with mud and silt. The pump, working with it in pairs, supplies water to shake up the deposits under pressure from the reservoir. For the cleaning to be really effective, the water drainage hose must be shaken and taken care that the amount of contaminants is not too large, if their concentration in the water is very high, overheating and even equipment damage can occur.
The equipment must also be selected correctly, the selection depends on the depth at which the water is located. Vibration pumps are used if the water depth is more than 10 meters.
Mechanized well cleaning using a deep pump and a pump that we work with in pairs is recognized as the most effective way. Much depends on the correct selection of pumps, so it is better to consult with specialists before cleaning.
Method # 4 - cleaning with a fire truck
You can call a fire truck to clean the well. Using a fire hose and a high pressure head, a well can be cleaned in ten minutes. But this method is expensive and dangerous, filters and system components can be damaged from strong pressure. This method is recommended for heavy contamination.
Method # 5 - using a lift-airlift
How to clean a well in the country from sand and silt using an airlift? The method is to use Archimedes' law. What is a well in essence? This is a vessel with water. A water-lifting pipe is placed in it, into the lower part of which compressed air is supplied with the help of an air compressor. A mixture of air and foam forms in the pipe. The water column presses from below on the riser pipe - the process begins, it must be controlled so that the water in the well being cleaned does not end.
Since the bottom of the pipe is located almost on the sand, the sand rises with water and is absorbed by the riser. The job of the cleaning person is to monitor the water level in the well.
Cleaning with an air-lift pump is also an effective method. Compressed air is supplied under pressure, at the bottom of the pipe, silt, water, small stones rise, are absorbed by the pipe and pushed to the surface
As a rule, the wells in the areas are shallow, and a standard vibrating pump or a bailer is suitable for cleaning. If the well depth is significant, you can try the mechanized cleaning method. When using a fire engine hose, cleaning the well will be very quick but expensive. Unfortunately, this method often leads to damage, and this entails additional costs. If the main source of water in your country house is a well, choose a cleaning method convenient for you and periodically clean it so that there are no interruptions in the water supply, because water in the country is the main condition for a comfortable stay.
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Well cleaning. Reasons for siltation of wells. Do-it-yourself well cleaning methods
Of course, before starting work on cleaning the well, you should familiarize yourself with its device itself. Even a general idea of the well designs that are being built for private households will help you better understand the device of your own well, which means cleaning it in a simpler and more reliable way.
Purification of water from iron from a well is a fairly common problem faced by many owners of country houses and plots. The question - how to purify water from a well, most often arises due to the fact that the content of iron and other minerals exceeds the accepted sanitary standard. In general, the need to purify water from iron arises because of the harm that is done to household appliances, as well as because of the unpleasant taste of iron. The scheme for purifying water from iron includes three methods:
- Aeration. The method involves enriching water with oxygen, due to which a chemical reaction occurs: iron is oxidized and precipitated.
- Reverse osmosis is a technique using special membranes that retain even the smallest impurities.
- Water filters. This method is mainly used for the purification of water that is not intended for use in food.
The content of the article:
The first signal that should alert the owner of a country estate, who has a well on the site instead of a water supply system, is the weak water pressure of the water flowing from the tap.
The main causes and signs of well clogging.
The next signal is the "sneezing" of the tap, releasing a cloudy water suspension and sucking air. And, finally, the most unpleasant thing happens - the water from the tap stops flowing altogether.
Before you start cleaning the well, determine the reason for this trouble. And the reasons may be as follows:
- The most important reason is improper drilling and well construction.
- A well is clogged if it is operated intermittently rather than continuously.
- The existence of underground natural processes that cause the movement of layers of the earth, change the direction of movement of the aquifer and others.
- There are no protective devices that prevent debris from entering the well.
- Filters are clogged and perform poorly.
- Pump operation is ineffective.
- The hydraulic structure is technically maintained irregularly and others.
How to drill and equip a well at a summer cottage?
Water is a vital resource, without which we cannot imagine our everyday life.
We are so accustomed to the conveniences that civilization has given us that, having lost them, we simply cannot survive.
Therefore, when we get a plot without water supply connected to it, we immediately get lost and are going to refuse to buy.
But there is a way out of this situation - you can make a well in the country with your own hands. As a result, you will gain several advantages at once: you will always have water, the costs for its consumption will decrease, etc.
Well drilling in the country. Issue price, main types of wells
The simplest is to order all the necessary work, but this is also the most expensive option. For example, the cost of drilling 1 linear meter of a well with a diameter of 133 mm will be from 1,700 rubles. This price also includes piping, including pumping to clean water. Also, the price will differ depending on what type of well you want.
The most common are two:
- filter well
The first option is usually drilled to a depth of 15-30 m to the nearest aquifer (sandy). The borehole diameter will be 127-133 mm and will last about 6-8 years. It can be done quickly enough, in just 1-2 days.
Of the minuses, a high probability of silting can be distinguished, which is the reason for the short service life. However, this is theory, from practice and numerous reviews, such a well can last 15 years.
This option is suitable for those who plan to use water for 1-2 people or only for the needs of the site - to water the garden, knead the solution, etc. The amount of water that the filter well can give is not enough for a country house where there is a shower, toilet, sink and other sources of water consumption.
This is due to the fact that the sand layer has a low level of fluid loss and filter capacity. Of course, you can use a low-power vibration pump, but you will not get the required level of water supply.
Artesian well construction will cost you more, however, the water quality will also be much higher. Its depth will be 20-200 m with a diameter of 133-159 mm, which is due to drilling to the calcareous aquifer. This is a difficult job, which will take up to 5 days, but it is worth it, because the service life will delight you - about 50 years!
A deep well pump is also being installed, which has a high performance. An artesian well is fully capable of meeting all the needs of the inhabitants of the house, its capacity is up to 50 cubic meters. m. of water per hour.
It is up to you to decide which option is more suitable for you. However, for a summer cottage, which you visit only a few times a week during the summer season, a filter well device is quite enough. In addition, you can significantly save money and drill a well in the country with your own hands, and not order work from a specialized company.
The main methods of well construction. How to make a well yourself?
The following methods are distinguished:
1. Auger... In this case, a special steel pipe is used - auger. A steel tape is wound on it in the form of a spiral and, in general, resembles a drill. Several augers are connected to each other using a thread, key or hex.
The method itself consists in the fact that with the help of the rotation of the drill, the rock is destroyed, which spirals upward, and as a result you get a well. This method can be used if the rock is soft, loose, and the well itself is shallow (30-50 m).
2. Rotary... In this case, the destruction of the rock occurs due to the rotation of the drill, which is transmitted from the rotor. This method is chosen when it is necessary to make a well with a diameter of 76-215 mm.
In addition, with the help of bits, which are of different diameters, this method can be used to drill a well inside the casing. The latter, in turn, are used in order to prevent collapse of the borehole walls.
3. Columnar... A ring-shaped drill is used. As it rotates, it destroys the soil at the edges. With the help of a pump, a liquid is pumped into the drill string, which washes out the destroyed rock.
4. Shock rope... In terms of technology, this is the easiest way. We need a drill bit, a cable. The method consists in the fact that over the place of the prospective well (above the bottom) the bit is raised on the cable and abruptly lowered. It, in turn, destroys the breed, which is removed with the help of a thief.
The latter method does not necessarily imply the presence of specialized equipment. The setup for this method can be done by hand.
To do this, you will need:
- drive glass - a piece of pipe about 2 m long with a sharp edge on one side, with a bevel inward
- impact bar that will strike the anvil located at the other end of the hammer
- rope or cable with a diameter of at least 10 mm
- installation frame
- winch (with its help the glass will rise above the bottom).
As a result, the system works as follows: The glass is lifted and released with a winch, it crashes into the ground and, with the help of an impact bar, which strikes the anvil, goes deep into the soil, the glass is lifted along with the earth inside it, which is held by friction forces, and the soil is poured to the side. However, it should be borne in mind that this method is only suitable for soft, non-flowing rocks.
For loose soils, you need to use a thief instead of a hammer. It will hold the ground with a valve at the bottom. In addition, in the process of work, it is necessary to lower the casing pipes into the well, which will not allow the soil to crumble. Also, the casing should be larger than the bailer. In addition, you need to monitor compliance with the verticality of the well.
Diy well construction
After the well is drilled in this way, you can proceed to the second stage - its arrangement, which will solve the problem of water supply to the country house. Let's look at how to make sure that the water supply system in the country from the well functions.
In general, the arrangement scheme is the same for all wells, differences may be only in some elements. The first stage included drilling, filter and casing installation.
The second consists of the following steps:
1. Installation of the caisson and the head of the well... The latter closes the well from above so that foreign objects and debris do not get there. And the caisson is designed to ensure the tightness of the well. In addition, its installation will allow water pipes to be laid underground at a depth where they will not freeze in winter. You can see how to install the caisson in the video below.
2. Installation of the pump... It is lowered on a cable (stainless) into the well below the water level in it by about 1-2 m.A power cable must be attached to the pump, which will control the pump motor, and a plastic pipe through which water will flow.
3. A hydraulic accumulator is installed in the house., a filter due to which mechanical water purification from impurities and an automation system for pump control are performed.
Automation consists of a pressure switch, which is triggered when the pressure in the system drops by turning on the pump by sending a signal to it, and a dry-running sensor.
The latter turns off the pump when the water level drops below it.
If the water supply runs in the ground and is not visible, then the irrigation pipe will protrude and spoil the whole view. You can refine the well by designing it.
You can make the following options:
- make a miniature wooden house or other structure above the well, varnish it or paint it brightly
- at the site of the well, you can lay out an original drawing, ornament or build any structure from stones, pebbles, bricks and concrete
- you can hide the well by planting green plants, for example, plant a willow and break a flower garden next to it.