Hello dear friends - gardeners, gardeners and amateur flower growers! Today I want to continue the topic of violets.
The appearance of children of violets
I have already told you about a simple way of rooting a violet leaf in water and about transplanting a rooted violet stalk into a glass with soil. After a while, the stalk will give children. It will take three weeks to three months for new violets to appear. Leafy cuttings can form one to five new plants.
When most violet babies have several pairs of leaves, they need to be separated from the mother's leaf and transplanted one by one into separate cups. So let's talk about how to separate and transplant children.
Violet baby transplant
My leafy cuttings were rooted in the water and were planted in the ground on July 16 last year. Each of the two leaf cuttings developed more than two babies.
To make it easier to remove the plant, I gently knead the glass with my fingers and take out the whole bush along with the earthy lump. Freeing the children from the already unnecessary cutting, I hold the mother's leaf with the fingers of one hand by the lower part of the petiole near the roots, and with the fingers of my other hand I immediately separate the entire bunch of young violets.
Now we need to disassemble this bundle into separate sockets: I take one baby by the base near the roots and try to carefully separate it from the rest. During this manipulation, the lower leaves are sometimes broken off from the children, but this is not scary: the main thing is that the rosettes with roots are preserved.
According to the number of outlets obtained, you need to prepare 80-100 ml cups: make drainage holes, put small pieces of polystyrene in the cups, and pour the prepared soil over the drainage layer, filling the cups to three quarters of the height.
To speed up the rooting of violets, I need a little hydrogel: I make a depression in the center of the soil and put half a teaspoon of swollen hydrogel granules in it, then immerse the roots of the children in the depression and sprinkle them with soil. The baby must be planted so that the center of the outlet is half a centimeter below the edges of the cup.
If there is not enough soil, add it, but do not deepen the center of the outlet: it should be above the surface. Now it remains to water the planted violet and plant all the rest in the same way.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated in the transplant procedure. By the way, it is not at all necessary to put the hydrogel in the ground. I used it to speed up the rooting process and provide the violets with moisture. I wish you all success in growing your indoor plants.
Violet branch and transplant video
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We plant violets children - a master class from a professional
I prepare the soil for my beloved favorites myself, mixing high and low peat in equal proportions and adding agroperlite. A small bucket of soil (5 liters) will only need a few handfuls of perlite. The roots will constantly receive their portion of moisture and air.
When everything is ready for responsible work, I pour a little foam into each cup, this will serve as an excellent drainage. After that, I fill it to the top with soil mixture, but there is a little secret - you need to moisten it a little with warm water and knead it with your hands.
Everything is ready, with trembling in my heart I take my precious glass with the children and carefully remove them together with a large clod of earth. Even those whose hands grow in the wrong place will be able to cope with this process when I tell you how to plant violet babies.
The most crucial moment comes - separation. How to do it correctly? I take the contents of the glass in one hand, and with the other I carefully separate the babies, trying to ensure that each has good roots along with the soil. Here is such a beauty!
The children are ready for independent living at home, and I have already prepared cups of soil. Planting is easy, you just need to make a small hole in which the roots will comfortably and freely fit.
Substrate, Earthen mixture for violets.
The substrate is the basis on which the plants are grown. For example, vermiculite or perlite are substrates for rooting cuttings. The composition of the substrate can include various components: high moor peat, low peat, sand, vermiculite, perlite, sphagnum moss, coconut substrate, humus, black soil, charcoal, etc.
Ground, ground mix or soil - all pure components or their mixtures, which include natural organic lands. Their main property is a rich supply of nutrients, which ensures the growth of plants planted in them without additional feeding.
Landless mix - made up on the basis of peat or coconut soil with the addition of inert rippers (perlite, vermiculite). A distinctive feature is that it practically does not contain nutrients necessary for growth, but it allows you to purposefully control nutrition with the help of dressings. The big plus of a landless mixture is the absence of phytopathogens.
Requirements for the substrate: - lightness - moisture capacity - air permeability - sufficient content of phosphorus and potassium, as well as necessary microelements - nitrogen content in sufficient quantity, but not in excess - acidity close to the norm of pH 5.5-6.5 - presence of live and favorable microflora that helps fight off painful bacteria - no pests and their larvae
One of the important indicators of the favorableness of the soil is air capacity. Air capacity is the ability of the soil to contain a certain amount of air. It depends on the porosity and moisture content of the soil. The higher the porosity and the lower the humidity, the greater the air capacity. The more structured the soil, the more large pores free from water in it, and, therefore, the higher its moisture capacity. In diffused, structureless soils, there is little air.
Most of the commercially available earth mixes are not suitable for breeding Saintpaulias. They, as a rule, are not sterilized, therefore, the microflora changes certain chemical parameters over time. This is especially true for acidity and nitrogen content. The likelihood of buying a mixture not only with or without parasites, but also with a lack or excess of fertilizers or various components can be considered a lottery. Purchased soil of a very dark, almost black color is made on the basis of lowland peat, which sour very quickly, it is better not to use such soils at all.
It is necessary to buy soil containing reddish-brown, coarse-fiber high-moor peat. It is not advised to take “Polisky” substrate violet, Saintpaulia “Biotech”, Saintpaulia “Garden of Miracles”, For violets “Garden-vegetable garden” - the soil is based on low-lying peat, too black, cakes. ASB GREENWORLD, Germany - this soil can be called the most optimal for violets
But on the basis of some of them, you can prepare a suitable substrate. For growing violets, land mixtures are usually used that contain minerals necessary for the growth and flowering of violets. In any case, you will need to add disintegrants such as vermiculite, charcoal, styrofoam, perlite, and sphagnum moss to a suitable commercial soil. They absorb moisture well, and then gradually release it. Better yet, prepare the mixture yourself.
In general, two approaches to the preparation of land mixtures should be distinguished. The first is the use of an extremely simple peat substrate with rippers. In this case, constant feeding is necessary. The second is the preparation of a complex, balanced mixture containing the nutrients necessary for growth over a period of time. The care of the plant will depend on which option you choose.
Soil for violets should be airy and retain moisture well. Perlite is an indispensable component for growing violets, since it provides air for the roots, while vermiculite makes the soil mixture loose and absorbs moisture. The peculiarity of sphagnum moss is that, absorbing moisture, it gives it to the roots of the plant gradually. It is helpful to add a small amount of finely ground charcoal. The number of rippers in the soil for violets should be 30-50% of the total volume.
Violet prefers loose, neutral soils with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The optimal substrate for its cultivation is high-moor peat, but not in its pure form, but with a regulated acidity. Since peat in its pure form is an acidic medium, which is not suitable for the development of violets. If you transplant violets twice a year, changing the soil, then the plant will receive enough nutrients from the new soil and additional feeding is not required.
It is not the finished substrate that should be subjected to heat treatment, but those of its components that may contain eggs and larvae of pests - leaf, turf, manure humus, all purchased substrates, as well as land, the origin of which you do not know. It is not necessary to process those components that can be destroyed during processing (clean peat and peat soils, washed sand, perlite, vermiculite, moss, fertilizers). ...
The most common methods of soil cultivation are etching with chemicals, roasting in an oven at a high temperature, spilling with boiling water and steaming over boiling water in a microwave oven. Put a small amount of soil in a regular plastic bag. And in the microwave. On the one hand, 3 minutes, on the other, 3 minutes. And that's all. No bugs, no spiders, no worms and mushrooms.
All living things, as you know, are at least 70% water, which is also heated inside insects. At this temperature inside the body, no one survives. The temperature is deadly for animals, but not for the decomposition of nitrogen and trace elements. The ground is perfectly sterilized for 7 minutes at a power of 800 watts. But it is better to do two sessions for 2-3 minutes. And the soil does not deteriorate, and does not smell, and what no, but sterilization.
They steamed in an old saucepan and a colander entering it without gaps, a lid that tightly closes it. Put a double layer of cheesecloth in a colander and fill it with slightly moistened earth, without tamping. Cover the colander with a lid and place it on the pan so that the water in it does not reach the bottom of the colander by 3-4 cm.At least an hour should pass from the moment the water boils until the end of steaming. After the soil has completely cooled down, you can add to it all the "clean" components - peat, various rippers and fertilizers. In order to restore the microflora, you can use ready-made biological preparations containing microflora useful for the soil, for example, Trichodermin, Glyocladin, Alirin-B, etc.
Sterile soil must be approached differently. It is empty in terms of population. And in nature, if there is emptiness, it is for a very short time. So, you steamed, calcined or spilled the soil with potassium permanganate or fungicides, thus destroying everyone - both good and bad. In a few days, the first spores of fungi attacking from the air, bacterial cysts will begin to germinate in the soil. And here someone alone will take over, filling the entire soil space in a very short time. The ability to reproduce quickly in sterile conditions, the absence of competitors and a good food base will make its population a leader.
Post-steam toxicosis is eliminated by spilling the soil with Trichodermin and others. These preparations contain billions of soil protector spores per gram. We can recommend Fitolavin-300, which contains a phytobacteriomycin-producing strain. The microorganisms with which these drugs are saturated suppress the initial explosion in the number of leading populations after steaming, preventing further activation of the pathogenic flora.
A good prevention of rot is - spilling the substrate with solutions of fungicidal and bactericidal preparations. Most commonly used - 3% solution hydrogen peroxide, solution furacilina light yellow and pink-raspberry solution potassium permanganate... Fungus development or growth point decay is less likely if you spill substrate while cooking phytosporin or trichodermine... When preparing a soil mixture, Fitosporin-M can be used in the form of a powder; this version of it is also commercially available. Add 10 grams to about 6-7 liters of soil with thorough mixing.
White bloom on the surface of the earth in a pot can be caused by the development of fungal microflora from excessive watering and in order to get rid of it, you need to water the plant only after the top layer of the soil in the pot has dried. Collect the top soil and sprinkle with activated crushed charcoal in the pot, this prevents rotting and mold growth. Mold, and with ordinary watering in especially sad cases, grows and permeates the entire earth in the pot. Then you need to transplant, completely change the whole land, use fungicides.
Sciarids (mushroom gnat) are often annoyed with violets. These are small flies flying around the outlet. Their larvae are dangerous - white worms 3-8 mm long with a dark head, damaging young roots and disrupting the structure of the soil. The drug Thunder-2 helps here. They just powder the soil when kneading. If you do this regularly, then there will be no mosquitoes.
An example of a soil composition for violets:
• - Soil Greenword and Peat - 50%.
• - Moss-Sphagnum or Coconut fiber - 20%.
• - Nutrient soil - 10% with the addition of crushed charcoal.
If necessary, a deoxidizer is added (dolomite flour or finely ground egg shells, in extreme cases, fluff lime). The number of components is approximately. For Saintpaulias of different ages, different varieties, different proportions are needed. So the soil for rooting leaves and children should contain more baking powder.
Since the materials are free-flowing, they can be measured with any capacity - you can take a liter jar, and if you need a little substrate, you can take a glass or a mug. In other words, for 1 cup of nutrient soil, add 3 cups of Greenword soil, 2 cups of peat, 1 cup of perlite, 1 cup of vermiculite, 1 cup of sphagnum moss, 1 cup of coconut fiber, plus crushed charcoal. Remove all large fractions from purchased substrates by hand: lumps, not rotted plant residues, sticks.
The above recipe is just one of many possible, it is not at all necessary to copy it with great care. So feel free to use this recipe as a starting point for your own composite soil. All these components can be mixed and their proportions and proportions in the mixture can be changed. The finished mixture should be light, airy and fluffy, water and air permeable and that did not cake as long as possible.
Option for storing ready-made soil: take a shoe box (you can take any closed box), “dress” it in bags from the inside, and pour soil into it. Close the box with a lid. Store so that the ground does not dry out and at the same time that there is air access.
For wick irrigation requires a landless peat-based mix with the addition of a large number of rippers. This is necessary so that the roots do not clog.
Growing from a leaf in the ground
Many growers believe that growing violets from a leaf without roots is a more successful method, since rotting of the cuttings is almost impossible, rooting is faster, and such a plant gives much more children.
Any schoolchild can grow a violet with the help of water, but not everyone knows how to plant a violet correctly in the ground. You can also grow a leaf in a plastic cup or by placing it in a pot - the main thing is that there are holes at the bottom for water to exit. A special soil, which is sold in every flower shop, must be diluted with perlite - this is an important component for violets, as it allows the roots to breathe and perfectly absorbs moisture.
We fill the third part of the container with pieces of drainage, and then add soil. We plant the stalk shallowly, otherwise new leaves will not be able to break through a thick layer of earth. To prevent the sheet from wobbling, it is worth slightly compacting the top layer of soil, if necessary, you can prop it up. Do not immediately water the future plant, moisten it with spraying as much as possible. Next, cover the pot with the violet with a bag (to create an artificial greenhouse and preserve moisture).
The flower is in this state until the appearance of small leaves or children. How long it will take is unknown, but the growing process will be successful. In the first week, the leaves of your planted violet may wither - do not take any action, this is a common occurrence. A maximum of two weeks after the appearance of the roots, the leaves will get stronger and regain the same elasticity. Water the planted cuttings once a week, otherwise the soil will acidify. Avoid fertilizing the leaf so that the roots harden faster in search of nutrients. Once every 2-3 days, the planted leaf and the children that appear are given the opportunity to breathe - for this, carefully take the edge of the bag and slightly open it for 10-15 minutes.
In the future, the children are separated from the violet leaf and planted in different pots, but it is advisable to plant immediately. It is worth separating the children correctly, so that each new plant has a couple of leaves and a few roots. Separation will be less traumatic for children if the ground is pre-moistened and the separation process takes place with pieces of native soil.
It is recommended to cultivate these flowers in the warm season, but experienced growers plant and separate the shoots at home and in the winter. There are no big problems in how to grow a violet from a leaf, and how to plant a violet correctly. Stick to the basic rules of growing, and then you will succeed the first time.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... August to September.
- Illumination... Needs bright light, but it must be diffused. For growing, windows are suitable for south-west, south or south-east orientation.
- Temperature regime... 17 to 25 degrees.
- Watering... At the beginning of the growing season, water is sparsely watered, and after the formation of the peduncle, it is abundantly watered, but not allowing liquid stagnation in the root system. The bottom irrigation method is perfect.
- Air humidity... It grows at normal air humidity in room conditions.
- Fertilizer... They are fed regularly 2 times a month. From the beginning of the growing season, liquid mineral fertilizers are used for deciduous plants, and after the formation of a peduncle - mineral fertilizers for flowering plants.
- Dormant period... Observed in October – January.
- Transfer... The transplant is carried out 1 time every 3 or 4 years, shortly before the beginning of the growing season, or when the bush finishes blooming.
- Reproduction... By dividing the bulbs, children and the seed method.
- Harmful insects... Scabbards, aphids, spider mites, mealybugs.
- Diseases... Peronosporosis, burn fungus, red rot.
When to transplant violet babies?
To get a new violet you need to plant the children of violets at home. This will require:
- Small plastic cup
- Mother plant leaf
- Drainage with substrate
- And a thin ribbon.
Before transplanting violets, you need to prepare.
Desirable take transparent containers, since in the future, the root system will be clearly visible in them. At the bottom of the cup you need to make at least two holes.
A ribbon (you can take a knitting thread) about five centimeters, is necessary in order for the future baby took water from the pallet, since it is not recommended to water the plant directly.
The ribbon is pushed into the hole of the cup so that part of it is in the substrate, the second part comes out of the cup. As drainage can be used:
- Expanded clay
- River sand
- Or gravel.
Used by light and loose substrate for violets (Saintpaulia).
Mother plant leaf you need to take a healthy and preferably from the second or third row of the outlet. A clean blade is used to cut the leg at an angle of 45 °. After the cut has dried, it is dipped into the root and stuck at a right angle into the prepared soil in the center of the cup.
Not every beginner knows when to plant violet babies. One mother leaf of some varieties of violets can give up to eight children... And if you leave them in the same glass, at a certain moment the plants will become cramped in it, which means that they will need to be transplanted.
How to determine that the moment has come to plant the violets children? Transplant time can be determined on the following grounds:
- Each of the children has increased from two to three pairs of leaves.
For a transplant, a violet child should have 3-4 leaves.
In this case, you can safely transplant the children into a separate, larger diameter plastic cup... It is worth choosing a glass of 80-100 ml and prepare a substrate for each plant according to the same principle as when rooting a leaf.
However, when it comes to variegated varieties, it is necessary make sure there are leaves with green fragments... Variegated varieties are able to grow a large number of chlorophyll-free leaves - white offspring, completely devoid of a green fragment.
Even if there are a lot of them and there is not enough space in the container, categorically such sprouts cannot be transplanted, since they are completely dependent on the mother leaf and feed on it
- A powerful root system is visible, covering almost the entire perimeter of the container.
If healthy and grown leaves of children are observed, and a good root system is visible in the glass, then the children are already can grow and feed on their own... They can be seated.
It is necessary to transfer the contents of the glass to the work surface, separate each baby neatlywithout disturbing their root system and put in a separate glass.
In a new place, each of the children will begin to grow independently, eat and form an outlet
- Baby leaves outweigh the glasscausing it to tip over.
In some cases, beginner violets skip time of timely seating the offspring of the violet. This happens either due to inexperience, or because of the fear that the plant will die.
The leaves have already grown and are strong enough, but for the full development of children a new spacious place is needed... If a young plant was not transplanted on time, then even in a new place it will take a long time to form a beautiful rosette
- Not enough space for the full growth of children.
It happens that from the parent sheet large offspring appear - 8, or even more young sprouts. In a small container, they refuse to grow leaves, and it is too early to separate them. What to do?
The baby becomes cramped and is transplanted.
In this case, it is advisable remove the most fragile shoots, leaving the stronger ones for further growth. Something has to be sacrificed. And let it be better to get stronger, two or three healthy plants will grow, than all the sprouts will die
- The mother sheet fell away, children grow up and feed on their own.
If for some reason the mother's leaf has disappeared, and the violet babies continue to grow, look healthy and eat themselves, then they can be seated... These are already completely independent plants, which transplantation will only help to turn into a beautiful adult plant.
From the sheet
Separation from the parental sheet occurs when each of the children ready to be an independent plant... The readiness for independent growth and nutrition of violet children is determined by the signs described above.
In a separate container
After the separation of the parent leaf, the formation of the center of the rosette of each of the children and the growth of strong roots, small violets able to live independently.
This is the period when they need a separate container, where they will feel spacious and comfortable.
The period from planting a leaf to transplanting each of the formed children into a separate container, the most time consuming. When the baby has grown and strengthened, further caring for an adult plant is simple and enjoyable.
From a cup to a pot
After some time, after the children are seated, each of them is gaining strength, builds up:
- Root system
- And healthy leaves.
Now it is an independent and strong plant that requires transplant to a permanent place in the pot.
A pot for a young violet should be chosen with a diameter of about 10-15 centimeters larger than an already formed rosette. It doesn't have to be deep, since the root system of violets is superficial. In the future, it is recommended to do an annual (spring) plant transplant into a new substrate.
As soon as the baby has grown up, it is transplanted into a separate container.
Watering costs carry in a pallet... With the help of the ribbon taken out of the pot into the pallet, the plant receives the required amount of drink. Violets do not like direct watering, as water can get into the center of the outlet, which will lead to rotting.
African violet diseases and insect pests
African violets are the most popular flowering houseplants in America. Their popularity is due to the fact that they are easy to grow and can bloom 10 to 12 months a year. They usually have problems with diseases and pests, but most of them can be avoided by following the recommended plant growing methods for maintaining health, as described in HGIC 1550. African Violet .
Rot of crown and roots: One of the most serious fungal problems of African violets is usually first noticed when the crown and roots of the plant become soft and soft. Old leaves fall off, and young leaves in the center of the plant look stunted, blacken and die off. Mushrooms can cause this problem. Pythium species and Phytophthora especially when plants are over-watered, have poor drainage, or are planted too deep, any of these conditions can contribute to crown and root rot.
Prevention and treatment: Prevent disease by always using sterilized potting mixes and clean containers when planting. Don't plant African violets too deep. Discard badly affected plants.
Botrytis Blight: Botrytis Blight is caused by a fungus Botrytis cinerea and often first appears as small, water-soaked lesions on the underside of the leaf. Leaves, stems, or flowers appear affected and turn dark brown or gray, often with a vague bloom on the surface.
Prevention and treatment: Collect and discard all dead and dying plant material. Provide better air circulation and avoid flowers and foliage getting wet. Botrytis often follows tick injury, so fighting this pest can help control the disease.
Insects and related pests
Cyclamen pliers: Ticks are not insects, they are closer to spiders. Steneotarsonemus pallidus ) - one of the most serious pests of African violets. They are very small (approximately 1/100 inch in length) and are not visible to the naked eye. Usually damage to plants is the first sign of their presence. They feed on neoplasms (i.e. leaves in the center of the plant). Symptoms may include severely stunted leaf growth in the center of the plant, sometimes with leaf curling. New leaves are often very pubescent, which makes them grayish. Flower buds may also be short, misshapen, or not even open.
Cyclamen mites develop most rapidly in high humidity (80-90 percent) and 60.8 ° F. To avoid light, they prefer the crown of the plant or the folds of leaves located in the petiole region (the stem that attaches the leaf to the leaf). bar) attaches to the bar. Thus, damage is usually visible first. The mites feed by sucking the sap of the plant. During feeding, they inject a toxic chemical that disrupts normal growth, and if infested, leaves and flower buds can die. If you ignore this, the entire plant or only its center may die. Some symptoms persist even after infection is controlled. It takes time and gradual pruning of distorted leaves to return to normal.
Prevention and control: Position the plants so that they do not touch each other to prevent the spread of cyclamen mites. Also, be careful not to touch infected plants before handling uninfected plants. Isolate infected plants. Heavily infested plants should be discarded. Discarded pots cannot be reused until they are soaked for 30 minutes in a solution of 1 part household bleach to 9 parts water.
For valuable plants, spray with miticide intended for use on indoor plants. Take the plant outdoors in moderate temperatures and spray with insecticidal soap or products containing sulfur or tau fluvalinate. It may take two or three sprays at intervals of three days to control ticks. See Table 1 for examples of brands and products. Follow label instructions for use and safety of all products.
Mealybugs: Several species of mealybugs are pests of African violets. These include the citrus mealybug ( Planococcus citri ) and Comstock mealybug ( Pseudococcus comstocki ). Mealybugs are about an inch long. They have soft bodies and are covered with a white waxy material that gives them a cottony appearance. They are found on leaves, stems and in the folds of leaves, and they feed by sucking the sap of plants. Feeding them causes undersized and distorted leaves. Severe infestation can kill leaves and plants. When they eat, they secrete pad (a sweet material) that coats the leaves, making them sticky.
Prevention and control: Avoid bringing these pests into your home by carefully examining the new plant, including the bottom of the pot, for mealybug eggs. Light mealybug infestations can be controlled by removing them with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol (isopropyl). Repeat if necessary.
Severe infections are more difficult to control. The waxy material that covers the mealybugs protects adults from insecticides. However, immature nymphs are susceptible. Houseplant insect sprays such as insecticidal soaps or pyrethrins are the least toxic insecticides, but sprays with acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, imidacloprid, or permethrin will control mealybugs. Take the plant outdoors at moderate temperatures for spraying. It may take two or three sprays at three-day intervals. Alternatively, applying insecticide pellets or plant thorns containing imidacloprid to the soil will also control mealybugs. See Table 1 for examples of brands and
products containing these active ingredients. Follow label directions for use and safety of all pesticides.
Refusal to bloom: African violet buds may not open, turn brown and fall off. Unfavorable environmental conditions, such as cold temperatures, poor soil aeration, moist soil or excessively dry air, all contribute to the death of flowers. Flowers will fall if there is the slightest presence of cooking gas.
Petiole rot: A symptom of stem rot is a rust-colored stain that appears where the stem of the leaf touches the pot. It is not a disease, but occurs when fertilizer salts build up on the edge of the pot and on the soil surface. Avoid over fertilizing the plants and be sure to use a source that does not contain salt, such as rainwater, for irrigation. The tape on the rim of the pot will prevent this problem. Leach remaining salts from the soil by flushing the container with plenty of fresh water.
Water spots: Yellow or white rings and lines on African violet leaves can be caused by contact with cold water. Keep the leaves dry while watering to avoid this problem.
Table 1. Pesticides for the control of insect pests and mites of African violets.