Melon is one of the favorite treats during late summer and early autumn. Juicy, sweet, incredibly fragrant, this beauty will serve as a decoration for any table and will become an addition or the main ingredient of the most refined dishes. Today, there are about 1600 varieties of this melon crop, each of which has its own taste, size, shape. The heroine of our article today is the Turkmen melon.
As you know, all types of melons of this truly wonderful and healthy product are united by a love for heat, dryness and a dislike for a lot of water. It is not surprising that it is in the southern regions and in the East that the most delicious, sweet, literally ideal representatives of culture grow.
Description of the variety
"Turkmenskaya" is a generalized term used by modern gardeners and melon growers, as they say "Uzbek", thus combining several varieties characteristic of this region.
In fact, there are over 400 varieties that Asia, and Turkmenistan in particular, offers us. And they are divided into four groups, which consist of representatives, differing in the rate of ripening and the periods when the harvest takes place:
- The first group contains early maturing varieties that reach maturity in a maximum of 70 days. These include Mazy, Ternek, Zamy. They are characterized by juiciness and tenderness of the pulp, medium sweetness (up to 15% sugar) and pronounced aroma.
- The second group includes mid-season varieties that ripen from 75 to 100 days. Such melons are dense, crispy and juicy, slightly sweeter than the representatives of the first group. The pulp of these varieties contains up to 18% sugar.
- The third group is also mid-season varieties, the beginning of ripening of which falls on the 95th day. These varieties are characterized by a viscous, juicy and very sweet pulp and have a long shelf life. It is these melons that are used for cooking melon honey, dried and preserved.
- The most late-ripening varieties are of the fourth group. They ripen up to 120 days and grow incredibly large. Of course, they are not as juicy and aromatic as the earlier melons. The amount of sugar in the representatives of this group reaches a maximum of 16%, the aroma is much less pronounced than in summer and early autumn fruits. But one cannot but appreciate these varieties at their true worth. It is they that become a juicy alternative to summer delicacies in the winter cold.
It is to the fourth group that the Turkmen woman belongs. It rarely grows above average size, tolerates low temperatures well. And when ripe by mid-autumn, it pleases with its sweetness and delicate, fresh scent. Her pumpkins are medium in size, the rind is deep green with a net of coarse fibers. When the melon ripens, the net deepens, as if growing into a pumpkin, and turns dark brown.
Turkmen woman - melon is not only tasty, but also extremely healthy. It contains a huge amount of useful substances: vitamins C, B, E, B6, B1, B2, B15, PP, a large amount of phosphorus, iron, copper, magnesium, carbohydrates, proteins and a number of acids useful for organisms, for example, citric and malic.
Since then, as people have mastered and cultivated melon, it has been used to treat blood vessels and blood, the digestive system and kidneys, used as a diuretic. Among other things, the substances contained in the pulp of pumpkin have a beneficial effect on the condition of hair and skin, strengthens the immune system, supports the functioning of the nervous system and cleanses the intestines. Traditional medicine suggests applying melon pulp to bruises, bruises and abscesses, treating coughs and making compresses for bronchitis.
Despite the name and origin, Turkmenka perfectly withstands low temperatures, which makes it suitable for growing not only in the sultry southern regions, but also in the harsh climate of Siberia. Due to the fact that melons ripen in mid-September, seedlings are planted, not seeds, in open ground.
In cold regions, after planting, the beds are covered with a film to protect them from sudden frosts and keep moisture in the garden longer. It is quite convenient to use collapsible greenhouses, because after the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, shelter is no longer needed.
In the process of growing fruits, they are often tied up in order to protect the fruits from damage, but in this case it is best to put something under the pumpkins so that they do not fall from the bush.
Also, after the appearance of the fourth or fifth true leaf, the melon must be correctly pinned and shaped. For this, the apical bud is removed in order to stimulate the development of the lateral stems. The main stem is usually tied to a trellis or put on a garden net, and the lateral processes are regularly pinched if ovaries appear on them, or completely removed if ovaries do not appear. Slices must be treated with charcoal or lime to prevent infections from getting inside the plant.
As is the case with many other varieties, the galaxy of Turkmen melons needs careful care, which primarily concerns watering. Try to build such a watering schedule so that the land is wetted for a long time, but water does not accumulate in the holes or aisles.
Stagnation of water is one of the main reasons for the decrease in the quantity and quality of fruits that form on the bush.
Of course, one cannot do without loosening the soil, but this must be done very carefully so as not to damage the roots. But it is not necessary to delay weeding with weeding, since it is better to remove them in the early stages, before they drop the seeds and hide your melons in the thickets.
Good vegetation and fruiting for the melon will be provided by fertilizing with a mineral and organic composition. So, for example, before flowering, mullein, nitrogen and potassium must be added to the ground in order to ensure the stable and active development of the plant. During the period of fruit formation and fruiting, you need to add saltpeter, infusion of mullein or bird droppings, as well as potassium and calcium. You can also feed with yeast solution every one and a half weeks.
It will not be superfluous to carry out preventive treatment of the site with fungicides and insecticides before planting and during the growth of melons. You can use the drugs "Ridomil Gold" and "Quadris 250".
Video "Melon from the Garden"
See what a beautiful and delicious melon has grown in the garden.
Characteristics of the Melba dwarf apple
A dwarf apple tree grows up to 2 m, its rounded slightly raised crown forms with age, and the first few years, rather, resembles columnar trees. The height of the tree, the timing of fruiting depends on the stock on which the variety is grafted. So on a seed stock Melba (or Malba) grows up to 4 m, begins to bear fruit at the age of 6, lives up to 20 years, gradually reducing the yield after the 10th year. A dwarf tree gives its first harvest in 4 years, in total it lives no more than 15.
The trunk and branches of young trees are smooth with a reddish tint, the shoots are slightly pubescent. With age, the bark acquires a brown, orange tint. Leaves are elongated, dark green, glossy with a jagged edge, convex when young and concave when mature. The flowers are large, white-pink, have a very pleasant aroma.
Fruits are medium in size, from 120 to 160 g, their main color is green, almost half of the apple is covered with a red striped blush, small light dots appear through it, a waxy bloom gives some bluishness. The shape is round, slightly widened at the base, the skin is thin and delicate, but rather strong.
How to plant a melon in a greenhouse
Melon is grown in two ways: early varieties by sowing seeds in the ground, later - by seedling. The second method is productive, but more time consuming. In spacious, well-heated farm greenhouses, seed planting is used. On a personal plot, for example, in the Moscow region, it is better to grow melons in a greenhouse in a seedling way. Planting material is germinated in two ways:
- spreading seeds on porous paper
- in peat tablets.
The seeds are preliminarily disinfected in a manganese solution, then dried. The work is carried out at the beginning of April, after 30 days the material is ready for placement in the greenhouse.
The sequence of works for germinating material on paper:
- Unwind 1 m of toilet paper.
- They retreat 2 cm from the edge, lay out the seeds, taking into account that they have enough space for the formation of sprouts.
- A roll is made of paper, tied with a thread.
- The side of the indentation (without seeds) is lowered into the container, water is poured so that it covers 1/3 of the bundle.
- Placed for germination at a constant temperature of +26 0 C.
On the 4th day, sprouts appear, the material is carefully transplanted into peat glasses. Planting in tablets is carried out according to the same principle, only the peat base is laid out on a pallet and poured with water, after the sprouts appear, they are placed in peat glasses. Pots for planting material are taken with a diameter of at least 15 cm. Melon does not tolerate transshipment, planting material is placed in a greenhouse together with a planting tank.
The time of planting melons in a greenhouse for growing in the Moscow region is chosen according to weather conditions. The soil layer 15 cm in depth should warm up not lower than +18 0 C. Seeds are not sown into cold ground, they will not germinate, planting material may completely lose its germination. For the transfer of seedlings, the same conditions. The temperature regime in the greenhouse must correspond to the norm required for the vegetation of the melon. The daytime indicator is not lower than +22 0 C, at night +19 0 C. For a temperate climate, this is any date in May.
The melon culture is demanding on the composition of the soil, growing melons in a greenhouse without preparing the soil for planting will not give the desired result. The plant will not be able to fully form the root system, will slow down the growing season and will not bear fruit. The best composition for melons in a greenhouse is neutral loams. Acidic soils are "corrected" by the addition of alkali.
The site is being prepared in the fall, dug up, and plant fragments are removed. For 1 m 2 of the garden it is necessary:
- organic - 5 kg
- urea - 20 g
- potassium sulfate - 15 g
- superphosphate - 30 g
- nitrogen-containing agent - 35 g
- dolomite flour - 200 g.
Organic matter can be replaced with peat mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 3 * 1.
In the spring, in a greenhouse on a prepared bed, a trench 25 cm deep is dug, the upper fertile layer is folded next to:
- Drainage from pebbles, expanded clay or crushed stone is placed on the bottom of the recess.
- Cover with straw on top.
- A layer of humus is poured, above sawdust or dry leaves.
- Cover the ditch with soil.
- Pour hot water over, cover with black film.
By the time of planting, the bed will warm up, the seeds will sprout faster.
How to plant melons in a greenhouse
During the growing season in the greenhouse, the melon must form a bush. By properly distributing the crop, it provides easy access to plants and saves space. On one side, the greenhouses make a wider bed, it occupies 2/3 of the territory. Melons are planted in a checkerboard pattern, with an interval of 40 cm. From the opposite side, 20 cm recede, a trench is laid, the melon is planted in one row with the same interval. Landing scheme:
- The planting points of the melon are marked.
- Depressions are made, ash is poured at the bottom. For seed breeding, a 5 cm deepening is sufficient, for seedlings - to the depth of a peat glass.
- The wells are filled up, compacted, watered.
If there is a threat of a drop in temperature, cover the seedlings with spunbond.
Taganka reproduces very easily. Young shoots, which formed in the second year, can already be transplanted to a new place. It should be noted that, despite their unsightly appearance (thin and small stems), the seedlings of this variety grow quickly and have significant vitality.
Raspberries of this variety are easy to clean. However, despite this, the raspberry plant needs constant watering, as well as a number of measures aimed at preventing diseases and parasites.
It should be noted that Taganka does not tolerate stagnant water. But its watering should be carried out often, especially during the formation of ovaries and fruits. Watering the bushes is carried out 2-3 times in 7 days. This procedure is performed in the morning or in the evening. Watering should be carried out by sprinkling or trenching. Three buckets of water should be poured under one bush.
All remontant varieties require pruning. After harvesting, the bush is cut to the ground, leaving only hemp. In this form, raspberries are sent for the winter. To make the plant better survive the winter, the hemp from above is mulched with snow, humus or leaves.
In the spring, sanitary pruning is carried out, which involves the removal of dry and damaged areas from the shoots. At this time, excess root growth is also cut off. This will allow the main shoots to get all the nutrients they need for fruiting.
In the second year after planting the bushes, they are fed. It involves the introduction of humus into the soil, to which ammonium nitrate is added. Top dressing is made at the rate that 1 sq. m. should go to five buckets of fertilizers.
During the flowering period (in June), the raspberry tree is mulched with horse humus, which is mixed with peat and straw. Such a layer of mulch perfectly retains moisture in the ground.
You can extend the growing season of plants by introducing an infusion of cow or bird droppings into the soil. The infusion is prepared by stirring 1 shovel of fertilizer in 1 wind of water.
The actions described above are quite enough for the raspberry bushes to bear fruit well.
It is easy to care for the planting of honey varieties. Water the beds in moderation, one watering every 5 days is enough. If it rains, watering is reduced to 1 time in 7-10 days.
It is necessary to water the bushes of honey varieties exclusively at the root or in the aisles so that moisture does not get on the leaves. Otherwise, burns may appear on the sheet plates.
The beds are loosened only in the aisles so as not to damage the roots of the plant. You can also weed the plantings so that the weeds do not draw moisture from the soil, but this is not necessary.
Honey melon is fed according to the following scheme:
- The first feeding is carried out 1.5 months after planting. Chicken droppings, manure and saltpeter can be used as fertilizers. This mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and poured over the honeydew melon at the root.
- The second feeding is carried out after 10 days. Complex mineral compositions are used for introduction into the soil. In particular, honey varieties respond well to feeding with chicken droppings and wood ash.
- All subsequent feeding is carried out every 12 days. Mineral mixtures are added to the soil.
As soon as the seedlings form the 6th leaf, they pinch it. This is necessary in order for the plant to sprout lateral growth. It is subsequently also thinned out, leaving only the strongest shoots. So, a melon will spend its energy on the formation of fruits, and not on a set of green mass.
As soon as the skin of the honey melon turns uniformly yellow, it can be removed to a dark, cool place where the harvest is stored for about 2-3 months.
Growing and care
Melon Cantaloupe is a rather unpretentious variety, but demanding for watering, especially in hot, dry times. The accumulation of water between the rows is unacceptable, this can damage the plant. In the heat, the leaves look slightly withered, but this only indicates the need for additional watering. But if yellow spots appear on their surface, then, perhaps, the plant is ill.Although this variety is very resistant, sometimes it still suffers from diseases (powdery mildew, root rot, etc.) or pests (aphids, spider mites, etc.) In these cases, treatment with special preparations or folk remedies will be required.
Until the creeping stems have formed, weeds should be constantly dealt with, they slow down the growth of seedlings. But when the stems get stronger, the weeds will start to "survive" on their own. To prevent the stems from lying on the ground, they can be tied up using a low lattice, and to support the fruits - lining made of scrap materials.
Melon will need 3 feeding per season:
- two before flowering (nitrogen fertilization)
- one during flowering (potash and phosphorus).
This will speed up the growing season, helping the plant gain more nutrients. From folk methods, watering with coffee grounds is recommended.
The Turkmen melon is a thermophilic plant, especially the Vakharman variety. But at the same time, it can normally take root in Siberian soils, varieties of very late ripening are best suited for this. For the cultivation of plants, the seedling method is used.
First of all, it is worth choosing a suitable site. It should be sunny, but completely sheltered from the winds. The soil should be of medium moisture and with neutral acidity values. In autumn, humus and superphosphate must be added to the soil.
In order for the seedlings to be strong, when preparing it, you need to follow several rules:
- In addition to good soil for growing melons, you need to choose a mixture for pumpkin crops.
- Large containers should be taken to further facilitate the transplanting process. No more than two seeds are placed in one container and immersed to a depth of 1.5 centimeters.
- For germination, containers must be covered with foil.
- After germination, the sprouts should be placed closer to the light source.
- Water the sprouts no more often than every other day. Moisture is not allowed on the stems and leaves.
- At night, the room temperature should not be lower than +18 degrees, and during the day - +25 degrees.
- A Turkmen melon is transplanted with a clod of earth in which it began to grow, then it is watered with settled water. Until the sprouts fully take root, watering is carried out only with warm water. The root collar must not be buried, otherwise the Turkmen melon will be damaged.
- Plants can be transplanted only during the period when the temperature at night does not drop below +14 degrees. Immediately after transplanting, the seedlings should be in the shade for 2-3 days.
- To increase the yield, the melon shoot is pinched right above the fourth leaf. When two shoots grow, they are laid out on the ground and pinned.
Culture needs careful nursing. To do this, you need to pay attention to the rules for watering, loosening and weeding.
- Watering. An excess of water will cause root rot and reduce the quality of the fruit. Drip irrigation is a great option for a Turkmen woman. Watering is reduced only after setting.
- Top dressing. The Turkmen woman gives a good response to fertilizers. For feeding, you can use complex formulations of several leaves. The feeding procedure is repeated every two weeks.
- Loosening. The soil must be constantly loosened to improve the aeration of the soil. To control weeds, the soil should be mulched.
Diseases and pests
A Turkmen melon can be exposed to the pernicious effects of all viral diseases. The source can be both infected soil and insects, and seed material. Prevention includes:
- Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology
- Strict adherence to the schedules of preventive treatments using antifungal drugs.
- Carrying out regular inspection of plants for the timely detection of diseases.
- Continuous loosening and weeding of the soil to prevent weed growth.
Harvesting and preserving crops
Collection time depends on the purpose of the fruit. If it is supposed to transport the fruits, then they are harvested a couple of days before reaching full maturity. Only late-ripening varieties are suitable for storage. The Turkmen melon does not ripen at the same time, so its collection takes place in stages. When harvesting, there should be no bright sun, so this business should be scheduled for morning and evening.
On a note! After harvesting, the fruits are placed on the ridges and kept in the sun for one and a half to two weeks. Moreover, they must be turned over every 5 days.
The Turkmen melon is an excellent decoration for the table and one of the most delicious summer delicacies. It is used to make melon preserves, jams, compotes. Consumption will bring the body a lot of benefits and energize for a long time. It is not difficult to grow such a melon on your own in your own garden, it is important to follow the rules of care and harvest on time.
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