Lada is a classic pear variety that takes root well in any gardens in our country. Due to the huge number of positive qualities, this variety has won the fame of the most popular pear.
Lada is recognized as a summer variety, the ripening period is in mid-August. The average height of a pear is 2.5 m. The tree has a pronounced trunk. Its crown is of medium density, up to three years old it is funnel-shaped, and at the onset of the fruiting period it becomes pyramidal.
Description and history of the appearance of the pear variety Lada
Let's start with a description of the variety. Pear shoots are quite long, of medium thickness, slightly curved, in cross section - rounded, brown in color. Leaves are dark green in color, small in size. The length of the petiole is 1.5–2.5 cm, the stipules crumble in the early stages.
The flowers are cupped. Each inflorescence contains 5–7 of them. The fruits are not very large, weighing 100-110 g, obovate. Their surface is smooth and shiny. Ripe pear has a yellow color with a pinkish tint on the sides.... The subcutaneous points are practically invisible. Lada's peduncle is short, there is no funnel. The flesh is whitish-yellow in color, grainy, of medium density and not particularly juicy. The fruit tastes sour-sweet without a pronounced aroma.
The Lada variety was bred by academicians Chizhov and Potapov. This pear is the result of crossing the varieties Olga and Lesnaya Krasavitsa. In 1993, the pear variety Lada was entered into the State Register for the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. Lada gained the greatest fame in the Moscow region.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lada has many advantages, which include:
- early maturity - a pear for 2-4 years from the moment of budding brings a full harvest;
- winter hardiness - even young trees planted in the fall are able to overwinter without shelter;
- high resistance to most diseases - Lada is resistant to scab and fire blight.
Of the minuses of this variety, they note:
- short shelf life of fruits - only 55–65 days at 0 ° C;
- low transportability - pears do not have good transport resistance.
When planting seedlings, the season is of no small importance. It is best to plant the pear in the spring. In autumn, this should not be done, due to the likely weak formation of roots in the autumn-winter season.
Nursery seedlings should not be more than 2 years old. Otherwise, root survival is significantly reduced.
Lada is not particularly demanding when choosing a soil, therefore it can grow almost anywhere. However, to increase yields, it is better to use drainage or black earth soil for planting.
The selected area is preliminarily dug up and fertilizers are applied: compost, potassium salt and superphosphate.
The dimensions of the recess for the seedling should be larger than the size of the rhizome, so that the tree is freely positioned when planting. In most cases, the depth is 70 cm and the diameter is 100 cm.
To create the correct crown shape, a peg is driven in near the plant, protruding from the ground by about 60 cm.
When the plants are immersed in the hole, they control that the root collar necessarily peeks out 5–7 cm, and the roots are carefully straightened and sprinkled with soil where the seedling was grown. At the last stage of planting, the soil near the pear is well compacted and watered, and a small amount of manure or humus is poured around the plant. At the end of all the actions, the tree trunk is carefully tied to the dug-in stake.
The pear is often watered only during periods of prolonged drought, since very frequent watering damages the root system and provokes all kinds of diseases of this variety. The plant may even completely die due to excess moisture. Watering is carried out abundantly, 2-3 buckets of water under one tree. Also, moisture in the pear is needed at the beginning of summer, when the fruits are poured.
In early spring, the tree is fed with nitrogen fertilizers. They do this when the snow melts and dry weather sets in.
Pear Lada loves good lighting, but not heat. In case of too much sunlight, young leaves may dry out.
Dried and damaged branches that appear after winter are cut off. The stem part of the tree trunk is usually treated with iron red lead or lime.
In the autumn, mineral fertilizers are used. They are added in October. In winter, the pear also needs proper care. It is necessary to ensure that during warming, wet snow does not adhere to the branches of the tree. The weight of the snow layer can easily break thin twigs. The stem is not covered, since the pear is highly frost-resistant.
In the first year of fruit appearance, excess young ovaries must be thinned out to create the correct crown of the plant.
Lada pears are pruned twice a year: in spring and autumn. Unnecessary branches are cut, very long ones are made shorter with a sharp pruner so as not to cause a lot of damage to the fruit plant. Then the places of the cuts are treated with garden putty.
Ripening and harvesting
Lada is a fast-growing variety of the early ripening period. With proper care and regular pruning, fruits appear 3-4 years after planting. The first pears are harvested in early August, and the main harvest falls in the second half of this month. A mature tree produces about 50 kg of fruit annually.
Pears are firmly attached to the stalk and fall off only when fully ripe. Thanks to this, it is possible to harvest in mid-September, when the pear fruits become amber-golden in color and blush appears.
The storage conditions for pears are as follows: darkened room, positive temperature 1–4 ° C, humidity - not less than 85% and good ventilation. Fruits are neatly placed in plastic boxes or wooden boxes. Spread the fruits in a selected container in layers, which are separated with thin clean paper or dry straw. Do not create more than two layers.
Lada pears are stored for 2–2.5 months. In addition, pears can be kept in the sand. When stacked in wooden boxes, sand the layers of fruit. Thus, the fruits can last until November.
Features of the
- Lada is considered a self-fertile variety;
- fruits are smaller than average;
- this pear is distinguished by high and regular fruiting
- the fruits hang on the tree for a long enough time, and do not crumble.
Protection of an adult tree from diseases and pests
Lada has good resistance to scab and fire blight. But at the same time, it is impossible to exclude the possibility of infection with these diseases, as well as other diseases and insect pests.
Pest control begins before the period of sap flow. To do this, 700 g of urea is dissolved in one bucket of water and the trunk and the ground around the pear are treated.
This event destroys all pests that have successfully survived the winter cold and frost on the plant.
But if you process the pear with this solution later, then the swelling kidneys will burn.
To avoid diseases such as scab, fire blight, fruit rot, powdery mildew and rust certain rules must be followed, namely:
- Spray the tree three times in time from the beginning of bud opening to the ripening of all fruits, regardless of the presence of the disease.
- Remove fallen leaves in time and remove weeds.
- Avoid increased dryness or excessive moisture content in the soil.
Despite the fact that the Lada pear variety is quite resistant to all of the above diseases, the use of preventive measures will be useful.
The pests of this variety are: gall mite, pear honeydew, aphids, moth and flower beetle.
The main measures for pest control:
- Planned treatments with special solutions against parasites are most effective here.
- The destruction of weeds is imperative, since they are carriers of various pests.
- Regular and careful observation of the appearance of the trunk, branches and leaves on the pear.
Despite the fact that the variety was bred relatively recently, Lada has already become widespread in most Russian regions.
Such popularity of this pear variety is facilitated by its ability to take root in areas with low and changeable temperatures, unpretentiousness to care and significant yield indicators. Since Lada belongs to the early ripening varieties, you do not need to wait long for the moment to enjoy tasty and juicy fruits.
Pear variety Lada
Lada is an early summer pear variety of the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after V.I. K.A. Timiryazev. Bred through crossing of 2 varieties - Olga x Lesnaya krasavitsa. The authorship is assigned to Russian breeders: S.T. Chizhov and S.P. Potapov. In 1993, the variety was entered into the State Register for the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. This pear is very widespread in the Moscow region.
Lada pear trees are of the standard type and are of medium size. The crown is medium thickened, medium leafy, in shape - funnel-shaped at a young age, pyramidal or cone-shaped at the time of fruiting. The bark on the trunk is dark gray in color, on the skeletal branches it is gray. The ringlets are sessile, final. This variety is characterized by a mixed type of fruiting.
The shoots are rather long, medium in thickness, slightly curved in shape, in cross section - rounded, brown in color. The internodes are short, not fuzzy. Lentils are rather small, located at the surface level, on the shoot are present in small numbers. The buds are dark brown in color, slightly deviated, conical in shape. The leaves are medium in size, green in color and elongated-oval in shape. The leaf blade is elastic, smooth, of medium thickness, curved along the central vein, not pubescent on both sides. The edges of the leaves are serrated. The petioles are of medium length. Stipules fall early.
The flowers are medium-sized, cupped, white corolla, medium-closed petals with solid edges. The buds are white. Inflorescences of the corymbose type (racemose), each containing an average of 5 to 7 flowers.
Fruits are below average size (the weight of one pear is usually 100 - 110 grams), with a smooth surface, thin skin, obovate in shape. By the main color, the fruits are light yellow, the integumentary color is expressed by a weak blurred blush of light red color. Subcutaneous points are moderately expressed. A slight rustiness may be present on the skin near the stalks. The stalks are of medium thickness, short in length. There is no funnel. The saucer is small in size, narrow in shape, lumpy. Open cup. The sub-cup tube is medium in size. The axial cavity is average in size. The heart is oval and rather weakly expressed. The seeds are brown in color, medium in size, the fruit contains less than 5 of them.
The pulp is colored yellowish-white and is characterized by a medium-dense fine-grained structure in taste - moderately juicy, sour-sweet, slightly aromatic (tasting score is 4.1 - 4.4 points). By chemical composition, the fruits contain: dry substances (15.7%), soluble substances (12.2%), the amount of sugars (7.2%), titratable acids (0.27%), P-active substances (92 mg / 100 g). The variety is universal according to its purpose.
Lada belongs to the early ripening, early summer varieties. In maturation, the fruits are not stored for long, a maximum of 2 months (provided that the temperature is maintained at 0 ° C). Trees are characterized by low shedding of ripe fruits. The level of fruit transportability is rather low. The commercial qualities are high.
Pear Lada is partially self-fertile. The best pollinators for her can be: Rogneda, Severyanka, Skorospelka, Chizhovskaya, Moskvichka, Kosmicheskaya, Otradnenskaya, Pamyat Zhegalova.
The early maturity of this pear is quite high, the trees enter the fruiting season 3-4 years after budding in a nursery. The yield is high, an adult tree can bear up to 50 kg of fruit. Fruiting is annual, regular. Winter hardiness is at a high level. Also, the variety is highly resistant to extremely unfavorable environmental factors and to major diseases.
The obvious advantages of this pear are: good early maturity, high winter hardiness and productivity, high resistance to scab and other diseases.
The disadvantages include the short storage and consumption of the fruit. Ideally, ripe fruits are recommended to be consumed directly from the tree.
Lada trees take root well in almost any climatic conditions, so they are recommended to be planted in many parts of the country.
Fertile soils (black soil, loam, gray forest soil) are most favorable for planting trees. In poor soils, it is highly desirable to regularly apply mineral fertilizers to them. The variety is quite hygrophilous, so it is important not to allow the soil to dry out completely. With scant precipitation, it is recommended not too frequent, but plentiful watering, especially during the period of active growth and filling of fruits (that is, from June).
What species does it belong to?
A fast growing variety with high yields and scab resistance. Fruit of universal purpose, suitable both for processing and for fresh consumption.
When does the Lada pear ripen and when to harvest? The ripening time of the Lada pear belongs to the early summer, its fruits will delight you with juicy and tasty fruits before anyone else.
The fruits are firmly attached to the stalk and are not prone to shedding, so you can harvest Lada pears in mid-September, as soon as they become amber-golden in color and a blush appears.
Among the summer varieties, you should pay attention to Cathedral, Victoria, Krasnobokaya and Lyubimitsa Yakovlev.
Planting pears Lada
Growing pears of the Lada variety is a laborious process. If you make an effort and adhere to all general planting norms, you can get a rich harvest of healthy fruits. To do this, it is important to correctly determine the time of planting seedlings, choose a suitable place, prepare planting material and plant.
A favorable time for planting seedlings is spring, autumn. The timing is determined depending on the climate of the region of cultivation. For the middle lane, spring planting is recommended. During the season, the young tree will get stronger, stock up on strength and successfully endure the cold winter. In southern latitudes, it is allowed to carry out planting work in the fall, but do this 3-4 weeks before the first frost.
The optimal time for spring planting is the end of April, for autumn planting - mid-September.
Selection of seedlings
When choosing seedlings, give preference to strong, healthy plants without diseases or mechanical damage. The root system should be well developed without growths and bumps. The bark should not be cracked. Leaves must be cut off before planting.
It is better to purchase seedlings with a lump of earth around the roots - they will adapt faster in a new place.
The maximum survival rate of plants, the age of which is 1-2 years.
Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedling must be processed in a clay mash or soaked in water with the addition of Kornevin for 1-2 hours. This will restore biological processes and help nourish the root system with moisture.
Choosing the right place
When choosing a site for planting, give preference to areas illuminated by the sun and protected from the north wind. Therefore, care should be taken that there is natural protection from the north or north-east - a fence, a structure, dense trees. In their absence, experienced gardeners install wooden boards painted white with lime. Coloring, reflecting the rays of the sun, contributes to additional lighting and heating of the plant. Fully pear will develop on a small southern or southwestern slope.
The quality of the crop is due to the soil on which the fruit crop grows:
- The soil must be fertile.
- The tree develops well and bears fruit on clay and loamy soil, rich in nutrients.
- The soil needs to be loose, this will provide excellent air circulation.
- It should be taken into account that pears do not grow in wetlands, on soils with a close location of groundwater. For the normal growth of a pear, their level should be no closer than 1.8-2.2 meters.
- Soils with an alkaline reaction are not suitable for them. They will grow better on neutral or slightly acidic soils.
Prepare the site in advance before planting. Spread it evenly over 1 sq. m. scatter compost in the amount of 7 kg, superphosphate -50 g, potassium salt - 25 g. Then the site must be dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet. This will oxygenate the soil and remove various weeds and their roots.
Sapling planting technology
Correct planting is a guarantee of successful development and comfortable existence of a pear tree, therefore, the following procedure should be followed:
- Dig a hole in advance, 100 cm wide, no more than 70 cm deep. For spring planting, do it in the fall, and for autumn planting, 2-3 weeks before.
- At the bottom, form a mound from a mixture containing the top layer of garden soil, humus, superphosphate, potassium fertilizer.
- To form the correct beautiful crown, drive in a peg 90-110 cm high 10-15 cm from the center.
- Place a young tree on a hill, carefully spreading the roots, and cover it with nutritious soil. In this case, the root collar should be located 4-5 cm above the ground.
- Tamp the seat, moving from the outer edge of the trunk circle to the base of the trunk.
- Pour 35-40 liters of water under the planted plant.
- As the moisture is absorbed and the earth sags, mulch the soil with sawdust, dry grass or a layer of humus no more than 10 cm thick. This technique will prevent the growth of weeds and reduce moisture evaporation.
- Tie the stem of the seedling to the peg.
- At the end of planting work, cut the seedling to a height of 60-80 cm, and cut the branches in half.
When planting several seedlings, it is important to keep the distance between planting units 2-3 meters. The optimum row spacing is 4 meters. Density of plantings negatively affects the growth rate of trees and can lead to a decrease in yield.
How to care for a Lada pear
The Lada variety is unpretentious, complex care of young and old trees is not required.
In order for the Lada pear to bear fruit well and does not age for a long time, she needs the following:
- Watering is necessary only when there is absolutely no rainfall in the summer. In this case, it is necessary to water the tree with two buckets of water at least once a week.
- Lada needs pruning twice a year. This will help to properly form the crown in order to avoid thickening of the shoots. In the spring, shoots that grow incorrectly are cut out to the trunk of the tree, as well as those branches that intertwine with others and create excess crown density. In autumn, pruning is sanitary: dry, diseased and broken shoots are removed.
- In mid-latitudes, the variety winters without shelter, as it is considered to be quite winter-hardy. In colder climates, it is necessary to mulch the near-trunk circle with peat so that the mulch height is 30 cm - this is the average depth of soil freezing.
- In early spring, it is advisable to whitewash the pear tree to protect it from rodents and sunburn.
- At least once a year, the tree should be fed with organic or mineral fertilizers. I use fresh manure or chicken droppings only in autumn, in spring a more suitable option is mineral complexes, humus, wood ash.
- The Lada variety is resistant to scab and pest attacks, but the tree still needs to be periodically inspected for damage. If necessary, carry out preventive treatment before the period of fruit setting.
You can harvest in late July or early August. Since pears are poorly stored, it is recommended to use the fruit immediately after harvest.
This pear variety is highly resistant to diseases and pests., therefore, it is practically not affected by the main diseases characteristic of other varieties of these fruit trees.
But under adverse weather conditions, the likelihood of fungal diseases affecting the vegetative mass of these trees is high, therefore, experts recommend carrying out preventive treatment of trees and soil with solutions of fungicides and insecticides in order to prevent the occurrence of diseases.