Many owners of private houses want to have a good Russian bathhouse on their land. But before proceeding with its construction, it is necessary to carefully think over and competently organize the drainage system. Currently, there are several methods for the device for removing waste water from the bath, which do not require large financial investments and supply to the general city sewage system. A well-made drain in a washing bath will help ensure a long service life of floors and foundations, as well as prevent mold and mildew on the walls.
Drainage device in the washing room with a bath
The drainage in the bath can be carried out in various ways, which depend on the type of floors in the washing room of the bath. There are wooden leaking and non-leaking, as well as concrete. For the first case, it is necessary to arrange a special reservoir for the drainage of water, from which it will pour into the sewer. And for the second option, the floor is laid in the bath with a slope, and special gutters and ladders for the drain are mounted. Any drainage system in the bath should be arranged before laying the floors.
Washing room in a sauna with wooden floors
When choosing to create an external sewage bath, it is necessary to take into account such factors as:
- The intensity of the operation of the bath;
- Building dimensions;
- The type of soil and the depth of its freezing;
- Sewer system (its presence or absence);
- Is it possible to connect to the central system.
The above aspects are some of the most important in determining drainage.
For a small bathhouse, where one or two people will take a steam bath several times a month, you should not make a complicated sewer system. It will be enough to dig an ordinary drain hole or a small pit under the bath.
The type of soil is very important when creating a drainage system. For sandy soils that absorb water well, it is recommended to make a drainage well. In clayey soils, it is better to equip a drain pit, from which the drains will have to be pumped out periodically. It is also necessary to take into account the degree of freezing of the earth, since the water in the pipes that will be laid above the required mark will simply freeze and the plastic will crack.
Soil types and their appearance
If you do not want the water from the bath to simply flow out and be absorbed into the soil, you must use a septic tank with a sump, where the drains will settle and purify, and then be distributed through irrigation pipes. The most difficult and expensive way to remove water is to build a well with biological filters, which consist of slag, broken brick and crushed stone. The peculiarity of this method is that when waste water enters the well, its walls are gradually covered with a layer of silt, in which microorganisms that purify water live.
Advantages and disadvantages of each external drainage system in the bath
Consider the various types of drainage, as well as their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
This is a sealed pit made of reinforced concrete, which accumulates water coming from the bath. When it is full, it is pumped out using a special device.
- Simplicity of the device;
- Does not require maintenance;
- Low cost.
- Water pumping costs;
- Organization of the entrance of the sewage truck to the well;
- The need for a well at the lowest point of the yard.
Drain well for water drainage from the bath
Such a water drainage system is a pit with a filtrate that purifies waste water. The filter can be sand, broken brick, crushed stone, slag, etc.
- Low cost;
- Simplicity of construction.
The disadvantage of the system is the regular replacement of the filtrate or its cleaning. And this procedure requires large physical costs.
Drainage well for a bath
Such a system consists of a pit that is dug just below the floor of the washroom. At the bottom of the pit there is a natural filtrate, which passes through itself waste water, which gradually goes into the depths of the soil.
- No piping required;
- Low cost of the device.
- Low bandwidth;
- The system is not intended for a bath with a slab foundation;
- It is used only on soils that absorb water well.
Bath sump device
This is a system that consists of a septic tank and pipes outgoing from it, which remove water purified from impurities. Drainage systems are installed at a certain slope so that the water quickly leaves and is completely absorbed into the ground.
- Works offline;
- It can be used to create a sewerage system with several points for receiving waste water;
- It can even clean black drains if you install an anaerobic septic tank.
- The need to equip a special area for a septic tank;
- Complex installation process, which is accompanied by a lot of excavation work;
- The use of expensive machinery, equipment and materials.
Wastewater ground filtration method
Alternatively, you can connect to the central sewerage system. Then there will be no need to arrange external facilities for the reception and processing of waste effluents. But here you have to pay for the services of specialists and draw up various permits.
Internal drainage system of the bath
The washing room inside the bath is equipped taking into account the future drain and the selected floors. Drainage should be carried out in such a way that no moisture remains in the room, which will contribute to the development of fungi and mold.
Internal sewerage device in the bath before the installation of floors
- Leaking wooden floors are most widespread, since they are the simplest option for a drain device in a bath. Boards are laid with gaps of about 3-4 mm, so that water from the washing room goes through the cracks into the pit without hindrance. Such floors are demountable so that you can carry out high-quality drying of the boards. In this case, the floor is arranged without a slope for draining, since the water will be absorbed into the ground under the bath.
Leaking wood floors with drain
- Non-leaking floors are arranged with a slope angle to the drain, through which the waste water will flow into the sump and then into the sewer. Also, water can drain into any selected drainage system.
Non-leaking wooden floors with drain in the sauna
- Concrete floors are easy to maintain, durable and reliable, so they are perfect for setting up a washing room in a bath. Such floors are also made with a slope towards the drain, so that water can quickly and easily go into the selected sewage system.
Concrete floors with drain in the bath
Preparation for the construction of a drainage system: drawings and diagrams of various drains
Diagram of the device of a wooden leaking floor with a drain. To be carried out prior to laying the floors.
Drawing of a pouring floor with a drain in the bath
If a dry steam room is provided in the bath, and there will be a shower in the washing room, then it is necessary to provide for a drain in the steam room.
In the sewage system of a bath, where water will be collected from several rooms, it is imperative to install a riser with a ventilation valve.
If the steam room and the washing room are located in different rooms, then the drainage gutter is placed under the overlap between them.
The device of the sewerage system in the bath
Under the wooden floor, it is necessary to make a concrete base with a slope towards the central part, where the gutter will go, which will join the sewer.
Diagram of the device of plastic sewer pipes in the washing room of the bath
Also, instead of concrete, you can lay a stainless steel or galvanized steel pallet on the floor under the deck.
Video: the device of a galvanized pallet for draining water under the wooden floor of the bath
When installing self-leveling floors, on which the tiles will be laid, it is necessary to observe the slope, where at the lowest point a drain is installed for receiving water, which is connected to the sewer.
Slope angles for the device of the sewage system
The choice of material for the drain device: tips for choosing
- For the installation of the sewer system inside the bath, it is necessary to use modern durable plastic pipes that have a long service life, and therefore will serve for many years. They are not afraid of moisture, do not corrode, like ordinary metal or cast iron, and they can be easily and simply assembled on their own without the involvement of specialists. PVC pipes are excellent for internal sewerage in a bath, flexible in any processing, and can also be with or without a socket. Service life over 50 years.
Plastic gray pipes for domestic sewerage
- Cast iron pipes are too expensive, heavy, and inconvenient to work with.
Cast iron sewer pipes
- Asbestos-cement pipes are the cheapest, but they often have many defects. Also, for the installation of a gravity drain, pipes with a smooth inner wall surface are required, and asbestos-cement products often have rough inner walls with recesses.
Asbestos-cement sewer pipes
Types of plastic pipes:
- PVC pipes (made of polyvinyl chloride);
- PVCH (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipes);
- PP (polypropylene products);
- HDPE (low pressure polyethylene pipes);
- Corrugated polyethylene pipes.
Any of the above types of pipes can be used for the internal drainage device in the bath. The diameter of the product for the main line is taken based on the future intensity of the bath and the number of drain points. For a regular bath with a steam room, a washing room and a toilet, pipes with a diameter of 10–11 cm are recommended. If no plumbing is to be installed, then pipes with a diameter of 5 cm will be sufficient for draining water.
Plastic pipes with adapters and angles for the sewerage system
Calculation of material for creating drainage and tools
For the installation of the internal sewage system in the washing room, we will need gray PVC pipes, as well as joints and adapters.
- The number of pipes depends on the length of the internal drainage system.
- We also need tees size and angle 110-110-90 ° - two pieces (highlighted in red on the diagram);
- Elbow adapter - 90 ° - three pieces (highlighted in black on the diagram).
- Horizontal sewer pipes - Ø11 cm;
- Vertical pipes for the device of water drainage receivers - Ø11 or 5 cm.
- To connect pipes of different diameters, you will need adapters from 5 to 11 cm.
- For the external sewerage of the bath, you will need orange pipes (PVC).
For work we need:
- Bayonet shovel (special equipment);
- Building level;
- Grinder with a cut-off wheel;
- Crushed stone.
Step-by-step instructions with a photo for making various drain designs in a bath
Before considering the drainage system in the washing room, it must be said that the entire sewer internal system in the bath is interconnected and consists of three waste water receivers.
- Trap for draining in the sink;
- Trap for draining in the steam room;
- Tee in the bathroom for installing a toilet and ventilation system.
Drain ladder in the bath
The trap for the drain is a siphon that has a water seal that does not allow unpleasant odors to enter the washing room, and it also serves as a grate that does not allow large debris into the sewage system.
Disassembled ladder in the washing bath
In the photo, we can see the slope of the tile floor to the gutter ladder.
Floor slope towards the water drain
The drain ladder must be installed in bath rooms.
Installation of a ladder in the floor of the washing room of a bath
Video: the system of functioning of the trap with a water seal in the washing room of the bath
- First, we will lay the sewer pipes. For this we are digging trenches.
Internal drainage system in the bath
- At points A and B, the depth of the trench should be approximately 50-60 centimeters in relation to the ground level (outside the foundation). If the height of the basement is 30-40 centimeters, then the depth of the trench will be 80-100 cm in relation to the top of the foundation.
Sewerage scheme in the bath
- From points A and B, we gradually dig ditches so that the slope is about 2 centimeters per 1 running meter. Pour sand about 5–10 cm thick at the bottom of the trench and tamp it well, observing the required slope.
- Fill the foundation and make a hole for the sewer pipe.
Drain pipe hole
- Install the drain pipes vertically (1 and 2 for ladders). To do this, we drive sticks about 1 meter long into the bottom of the trench, and then tie plums to them. We install vertical pipes, making a small margin of length. In the process of installing the floor and installing the ladders, we will shorten them.
Installation of drain pipes in the washing and steam room
- We mount the sewerage system according to the indicated scheme.
In the construction industry, the depth of laying sewer pipes in the southern regions is about 70 cm from the ground surface. In the middle lane, the depth varies from 90 to 120 cm, and in the north, at least 150–180 cm.
In order for the drains not to freeze, the tubes must be insulated with several layers of special 10 mm foamed polyethylene.
Insulation of sewer pipes
We dig a shallow hole for the drain under one end of the pipe. Now we need to try to drain a certain amount of water in order to check the correct angle of the pipe slope. We check all the pipes one by one.
- Digging trenches.
We bury a trench under the bath
We make an external sewage system with our own hands
If the volume of waste water does not exceed 700 liters. a week, we can use old truck wheels as a septic tank. We can calculate the area of water absorption of the septic tank, given that the degree of water absorption of 1 sq / m of sandy soil is about 100 l / day, mixed sandy loam about 50 l / day, loamy soil about 20 l / day. Depending on the type of soil and its water absorption, we calculate how many wheels we need.
External sewerage scheme
- We are digging a hole 2x2 meters and a depth of about 2.3 - 2.5 meters, depending on the level at which the pipe will come out. We put sand 10-15 cm at the bottom, and crushed stone on top - 10-15 cm.
- We put about 5–7 wheels on top of each other in a hole tightly. The upper point should turn out so that the drain pipe can accurately enter it.
Drain pit from wheels and a cut-out place for a pipe
- In loamy soil, it will be enough to install 7 wheels. If the site has sandy loam or sandy soil, then 5 pieces will be enough.
Making a septic tank from wheels
- We cover the wheels with a metal or plastic durable cover with a hole made in it. We insert a ventilation pipe into it, through which air will flow, providing the vital activity of microorganisms that process wastewater.
Drain pit with lid, water drain pipe and ventilation
- We carry out a test drain and bury the entire structure.
How to make a drainage well for drainage: a guide
The drain pit can be made of a plastic or metal tank, reinforced concrete rings or red brick.
Drain pit for a bath made of concrete reinforced concrete rings
- We choose a place in the lowest place of the site so that the water from the washing room leaves by gravity. In order for it to be convenient to pump out water from the well and the car could freely drive up to it, you need to choose a place with a convenient entrance.
- Digging a hole with an excavator. If there is no equipment, then you have to dig by hand, and this is a long process. We monitor the condition of the pit walls (they should not crumble). We can dig a hole in a square, rectangular or round shape.
- We make the bottom with a slight slope towards the hatch for easy cleaning of the tank. We fill up the sand 15 cm and concreting the bottom. Instead of concreting, you can simply lay a reinforced concrete slab of the desired shape and size.
We make the bottom with a slope for the drain well
- We lay out the walls with bricks. You can take a second-hand red brick. For masonry, we make a mortar of clay and sand. In one of the walls, during the masonry process, we install an inlet pipe for water.
We lay out the walls of the drain pit made of brick
- Since the brick walls are waterproof, we need to treat them with a special sealant. For this we take bituminous mastic or other similar material.
- We mount the floor from a reinforced concrete slab. The upper part of the well on all sides should be closed by about 30 cm. To pump out the water, we make a hole above the pit area where the slope is located. The overlap is arranged in several steps. First, we make the formwork from the boards and fill in a 5–7 cm concrete layer. Put reinforcement on top and fill in the next layer of mortar. We leave the concrete to dry for a few days.
We make a concrete floor with reinforcement for the drain pit
- We put a metal hatch, and cover the concrete ceiling with polyethylene and fill it with soil so that only the hatch is visible on the surface.
How to place a drainage system with a pit
- Under the floor of the washing room, we dig a hole 2x2 meters and a depth of at least 1 meter. At a height of 10-15 centimeters from the floor level, we install a pipe that will connect the pit with the external sewage system. We observe a slope of 1 centimeter per 1 running meter.
Scheme of the pit under the bath
- At the bottom we put a layer of crushed stone, broken brick, gravel or expanded clay, and on top we pour a layer of sand. We strengthen the walls with bricks, large-wave slate or natural stone.
Pit under the washing room of the bathhouse (with wood and concrete floors)
- On top of the pit, we lay logs, and on them we are already installing a wooden floor.
Laying logs for a wooden pouring floor above the pit
- So that the waste water can easily go directly into the pit, the boards are stacked at a distance from each other. Such a wooden floor does not need to be attached to the joists so that it can be easily removed and dried.
The second version of the pit device is a water collector, from which the drains will be poured into a septic tank or sewer when a certain level is reached. Basically, this method of drainage is used when installing leaking floors.
Arrangement of a pit under a bath with a water seal
- Under the floor, we dig a hole 50x50 cm in size. We cover the bottom and walls with waterproofing or concreting.
- We bring a pipe to the pit at a distance of 10 cm from the floor. Outside the bath, it should go at a certain slope.
- We install a water seal, which will prevent the penetration of the smell of sediment water from the sewage system. We make the odor trap from a metal plate, which is installed with an inclination. We attach it to the pipe in three places, except for the bottom. From the bottom of the hole to the bottom of the plate should be about 5 cm.
Diagram of the hydraulic seal device in the pit under the bath
- Also, as a water seal, you can use a regular rubber ball, which is attached above the drain of the pit. When the container is filled with water, the ball floats up and opens the drain, and when all the water comes out, it closes the pipe again.
How to install soil filtration for a bath
For the device of such a system, a separate septic tank will be required, which will serve as a sump and distribution well. Drainage pipes will go from it in different directions, intended for the distribution of treated wastewater around the entire perimeter of the yard. You can buy a septic tank, or you can make it yourself from large containers made of plastic or metal.
A septic tank made of reinforced concrete or a round structure made of brickwork works perfectly.
- To begin with, we install a septic tank. We dig a hole 1.2-2.5 meters deep and mount a reservoir in it. We bring a pipe to the container, which should be located slightly lower than the thickness of the freezing of the soil.
Installing a septic tank in a pit near a bath
- Then we prepare the drains. Their length is taken depending on the number of drains. We take plastic pipes Ø110 mm and make holes in them. They should be slightly smaller at the top than at the bottom. This must be done so that the water withdrawal occurs evenly.
Drain pipe with holes
Drainage system rules:
- The pipe length should be no more than 25 meters;
- Laying depth of at least 1.5 meters;
- The distance between the pipes is at least 1.5 meters;
- The width of the drainage trench is at least 50 cm, maximum 1 meter.
- We dig a trench, taking into account an angle of inclination of about 1.5 °. We check the angle with the usual building level.
- At the bottom of the trench of clay soil, pour 10 cm sand and 10 cm gravel on top. In loamy soils, the pipe will need to be wrapped with filter material to avoid silting. On sandy soil, we make a sand and crushed stone pillow, and wrap the pipes with geotextiles.
We fill the trench with the laid pipe with gravel
- Pour 10 cm of gravel on top of the drainage, and then fill the ditch with earth.
We cover the pipes in the filtration field with geotextiles and bury them with earth
- The filtration system must be ventilated, therefore, at the end of the drainage pipe, we install a pipe with a height of about 50 cm, and put a safety valve on top.
General diagram of the structure of the soil filtration system
Tips for operating the drainage of water from the bath
- It is necessary to periodically check the drains and clean them from contamination.
- In order for the wastewater not to accumulate in a large volume in the well, it is necessary to regularly empty it, calling special sewage equipment.
Pumping out waste water from a drain pit
- The soil filtration system needs maintenance, which consists in replacing the sand and gravel, as well as the layer of earth under it. Such a replacement is carried out approximately every 10-15 years.
Video: how to bring the drain system to the bath
A properly made drain in the washing room of the bath and its other rooms guarantees a long service life of this structure. It will help protect the building from the harmful effects of moisture and prevent pollution of the area with waste water. Even in small baths, it is necessary to equip a drainage system, so this process must be approached with complete seriousness and responsibility.
Do-it-yourself bath: projects, photos, description of construction stages
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If you have your own piece of land, then one of the objects of the landscape area can be a do-it-yourself bath. Projects, photos and features of construction work are presented on our website. For construction, you can choose any interesting option or project from our review.
So, in order to build a quality building, you need to think through the following points:
- find the perfect project
- think over each stage of work
- purchase suitable material
- plan all communications
- the important point is the interior decoration.
A beautiful bathhouse on the site can be not only a functional building, but also a luxurious element of landscape design
Preparing for construction: project drawings
Drawing creation requires certain skills. If they are not there, then it is better to entrust the implementation of this work to a specialist or use a ready-made drawing.
Before drawing up a diagram, it is important to decide on the following points:
- The location of the building on the site. It is important to consider drainage and drainage. Quite often, the main factor when choosing a location is the laying of communications.
In the process of choosing a place for a bath, it is important to take into account the location of communications
All the information received must be entered into the drawing, as well as the project must be supplemented with the necessary details. The more detailed the scheme, the easier it is to build a bath.
The more detailed the project, the easier it is to make a frame bath with your own hands.
It is recommended to draw up a separate plan for communications. If you have little experience, you should not make a complex project. You can use a ready-made scheme, slightly supplementing it based on your own needs.
The standard bath includes a corridor, a dressing room, a washing room and a steam room.
A standard frame bath consists of a dressing room, a steam room, a shower and a relaxation room
Quite often, a separate recreation room is provided. It is recommended to mark the place of installation of the stove on the diagram. If it is a steam room, then the stove is best placed in the corner closest to the door. The stove can be stone or brick.
It is recommended to determine in advance the dimensions of each of the premises and designate them in the drawing. The standard dimensions of the steam room are 200x240 cm. The optimum ceiling height is 220 cm. This design can simultaneously accommodate 2-3 people.
On the drawing you can see a bathhouse for a suburban area with a balcony measuring 1.5x4 m. The overall dimensions of the building are 4x6 m. The project is suitable for organizing gatherings in an open area in summer.
A frame bath can be equipped with a terrace for gatherings in the warm season
Such a bath consists of 3 rooms:
- steam room
- washing and shower room
- recreation room.
The corridor is shown separately in the diagram. There is no room for the dressing room. There is a small dressing area in the washroom. The terrace connects to the living room.
The optimal wall thickness of the frame structure is 100 mm or more.The wood that is used in the process of making a bath must be treated with an antiseptic. It is recommended to use dried, calibrated lumber.
It is obligatory to perform vapor barrier insulation of the insulation material on the inner base. In the steam room, you need to use a foil vapor barrier. The reflective layer can increase the temperature inside the steam room.
Walls and ceilings in the area of the stove should be made using non-flammable materials. For example, the frame is made of a rack-mount metal profile, which is coated with zinc. The cuts can be made from asbestos cord. In these places, a basalt slab can be used as an insulation material.
A supply and exhaust ventilation device is mandatory in all rooms. Sink floors should be made with a slight slope or screed. The upper and lower floors must be insulated in the same way as the walls.
The minimum size of a frame bath is 3x4 m.
The minimum size of the bath for a comfortable stay of several people is 3x4 m
The budget version of the frame is made in this way: the racks are sheathed from the inside and outside with boards up to 25 mm, basalt insulation or ecowool is laid inside the frame structure.
If it is planned to use ecowool inside the walls, it should be carefully compacted and horizontal platforms for unloading should be installed. The frame must be sheathed inside and out. To do this, you need to make a crate. From the outside, the insulation material is covered with a membrane to protect it from the wind. In the horizontal plane, the use of ecowool is a more economical option in comparison with basalt insulation.
Outside, the frame structure can be covered with any cladding material. Inside, the building is sheathed with clapboard, plasterboard sheets with tiles or imitation of timber.
How to properly make floors in the bath with your own hands (with video)
Getting down to such a crucial moment as the device of the floor in the bath, you need to get the necessary knowledge about the technology of the process. After that, having decided on the material and design, purchasing the necessary working tool and purchasing consumables, you can start working.
Recommendations on how to properly make the floors in the bath of a leak-proof and leaking structure, read below.
How to make a wooden floor in a bath with a water drain
The floors in the bathhouse with their own hands are most often made of concrete or planks. Wooden floors in the bath are laid out from boards with a cross section of 15 × 5 cm, attached to logs (logs with a cross section of 14-18 cm or a beam of 15 × 15 cm).
Before making the floor in the bath, keep in mind that they can be leaky and non-leaky. For leaking wood floors, slots are provided for the drainage of water, which will subsequently be absorbed into the soil under the bath. The floor is removable, because after visiting the bath, it is lifted and dried. It cannot be insulated, so it is suitable for areas with warm climates.
Non-leaking wood floors have a constructive slope: along it, water flows into the ladder, from where it enters the sump and then goes into the sedimentation tank through a special drain. Such a design is possible with insulation, but it is quite expensive.
Before making a wooden floor in a bath, create a frame from a log (type of wood - pine or larch).
It is imperative that the floor is tilted to drain the water in the bath, and in order to avoid deflection of the log under load, columns of brick or concrete are folded under them.
If the supports are brick, you need to make reinforced concrete platforms with a thickness of more than 20 cm and more than the perimeter of the column itself by 5-7 cm on each side.
For concrete supports, pits about 40 cm deep are prepared, their bottom is carefully tamped, a 10 cm layer of sand is poured, then it is also compacted, having previously moistened with water. Then crushed stone is poured in a layer of 15 cm. Formwork is built, protruding 5 cm above the ground.
Before making a floor in a bath with a drain, they certainly provide for a slope towards the drain hole. If the floor is not leaking, the slope is not necessary. The edges are insulated with roofing material. A thick concrete solution is poured in the proportion: for 1 part of cement, 5 parts of crushed stone and 3 parts of sand.
To waterproof the site, after the concrete solution has completely dried, it is treated with molten bitumen and roofing material is glued to it.
In the process of laying the floor in the bath, remember that the upper cut of the support pillar should be flush with the upper cut of the foundation, if it is a strip one. With a columnar type of foundation, the logs are held on the bar of the mortgage crown, therefore, the upper cut of the support posts is flush with the bar.
How to make a floor in a bath: building an underground
And how to make a floor in a bath with an underground? Its construction is started when the posts are ready. If the soil absorbs water well, then a leaking floor is mounted: they make a bed of crushed stone 25 cm thick as a filter that prevents the soil from silting up and reduces moisture. Thanks to this, the subfloor dries quickly.
If the soil weakly absorbs moisture, then in the soil it is necessary to provide a special tray for the water to drain into the pit, and from there into the septic tank.
For this, a clay castle is installed under the floor, which should be inclined towards the pit. On top of the soil in the underground, rubble is poured in a layer of 10 cm and carefully tamped. Then the clay is laid with a thickness of 15 cm and a horizontal slope is formed from it directly to the tray.
In the washing compartment, a pit is made and a branch pipe (inner diameter 15 cm) is brought out from it.
If the floor is not leaking, the joists are mounted from the walls to the pit. The logs completing the structure are positioned higher than on the following bars, cuttings are not made in them. The rest of the logs are equipped with cuttings with some cut of 0.2-0.3 cm.
The same cut is equipped in the place where the logs are in contact with the support post. The cover should be placed at an angle of 10 °.
Lags under the leaking floor are performed at the same level. Work starts from any wall. But the timber for the logs should be 3-4 cm from the wall for ventilation.
The lags, pre-treated with an antiseptic, are placed on the support posts and the embedded bar, using a waterproofing material - glassine, roofing felt, roofing felt.
When installing the floor in the bath with your own hands, using the building level, it is imperative to check whether the assembly is being performed correctly.
If the lag for some reason does not fit into place, you can slightly trim it where it rests on a post or beam. Therefore, it is so important with the help of the building level to clarify how evenly the beams are located relative to each other. To align them, the logs are cut or, on the contrary, the linings placed under them are used.
How to put a leaky and non-leaking floor in a bath
A non-leaking floor is made of grooved boards. They are laid in such a way that the grooves face the interior of the room. But before that, they perform a rough floor: they attach bars with a section of 5 × 5 cm to the ends of the logs from below.
Between the lags, scraps of boards or slabs are placed on them. Then the floor is waterproofed with roofing material or a special film. Then the structure is insulated by pouring expanded clay between the logs. It is covered with a second layer of waterproofing.
And only after that the finishing floor covering is laid.
It is advisable not to fasten the boards with nails in the washing and steam rooms, which will allow them to be lifted for quick drying. Bars with a cross section of 2 - 3 cm are used as fasteners. They are screwed to the logs with screws - "wood grouses". The floor can then be easily removed. Space is left between the finishing coating and the subfloor for ventilation.
Asbestos cement, steel or PVC pipes can then be inserted into these holes. The diameter of such pipes varies from 5 to 10 cm.
The boards are laid in such a way that between them and the walls there is about 2 cm for the ventilation gap. Shoot them down, starting from any wall. The main thing is that it is located parallel to the direction of installation of the boards.
Wood floors in a steam room or a washing room must not be varnished or painted, as they release harmful substances when heated. In addition, the varnish quickly deteriorates under the influence of constant humidity and high temperatures.
When the first floorboard is installed, it is secured with nails. The length of the nails should be twice the thickness of the boards. They are driven into the floorboards at an angle of 45 ° along the desired edge, departing from it about 15 mm. Each board is nailed to a bar with at least two nails.
The second and other boards are fixed at a distance of 3-5 mm from each other. A piece of plywood or a sheet of fiberboard is suitable here as a template, and such a floor arrangement is required in the washing department and steam room. In the rest of the premises of the bath, the boardwalk can be continuous.
Below is a video on how to make floors in a bath with a leaking and non-leaking structure:
Which floor in the bath is better is up to the owner himself, but concrete has more advantages than wood. It is much more durable. Many people believe that it is precisely such floors in the bathhouse that are correct, since the plank flooring is used for 6-15 years, and the concrete one can function for up to 50 years.
Before making a concrete floor in the bath, you need to equip a pit that plays the role of a water collector. It is equipped with a branch pipe with a diameter of 20 cm, which is led out into a prepared gutter. If, for example, the area of the steam room is 4 m2, then the pit should have dimensions: 0.4 × 0.4 × 0.3 m.Its walls are covered with concrete mortar 5 cm thick.
Next, a base is prepared for the concrete floor in the bath. Broken brick is laid on carefully leveled soil with a layer of 15 cm, 10 cm of crushed stone is poured on top of it and everything is carefully tamped. The first concrete layer 5 cm thick is poured. When pouring, a slope is provided that goes in the direction of the pit. Control the implementation of this operation using a bubble building level.
When arranging concrete floors in a bathhouse with your own hands, when the layer dries up, the coating is insulated by sprinkling expanded clay on the concrete with a layer of 8 to 10 cm. A reinforcing mesh is placed on it and this peculiar layered "cake" is again covered with concrete mortar. It is leveled and compacted with a battery vibrator. Smooth the resulting screed with a large foam or wooden float.
When mixing a cement-sand mixture, it is advisable to add expanded perlite to it. It will significantly improve the thermal insulation properties of concrete, and also make the coating more durable.
Perlite is a rather peculiar material: it weighs little, which is why it is volatile, therefore it is usually used in a room protected from draft and wind.
To prepare the solution, take 2 buckets of perlite, carefully place them in a concrete mixer, add 10 liters of water and mix everything thoroughly.
Since the material is artificially swollen sand of volcanic origin, this operation reduces the volume of the solution by almost a third.
After that, half a ten-liter bucket of Portland cement grade M is introduced into the concrete mixer and the solution is re-mixed. After a few minutes, 5 l of water is poured in and mixing is continued. When the material is homogeneous, add another 2 L of water and a bucket of filler. Continuous stirring is continued until the solution is almost free flowing.
In the steam room, it is a good idea to lay ceramic tiles with a relief or rough surface on the concrete floor. When the covering is completed, a removable wood grating is laid on it. This will make it easy to move around on the heated floor, since the wood does not heat up from the elevated temperature.
In the rest room and dressing room, you can make a tiled, wooden floor or even linoleum.
A video on how to make a concrete floor in a bathhouse will burn you a better understanding of the process technology:
Sauna with a swimming pool: advantages
As already mentioned, the main advantage of having a pool in the bathhouse is the ability to swim in cool water even if there are no lakes or rivers near the site.
But even if your site has a reservoir, this does not mean that the project of a bath with a pool will not suit you. Swimming in ponds is not always safe, because you cannot be sure of the purity of the water, the absence of sharp stones at the bottom, etc. While swimming in the pool, you will know for sure that the water in it is clean, treated with chlorine. This is especially true when you go to the bathhouse with children.
If the pool is located indoors and the building is well insulated, you can use the pool all year round. It is possible to swim in water bodies only in warm weather.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before embarking on the construction of a swimming tank, it would be nice to thoroughly familiarize yourself with this type of equipment.
The modern pace of life leads to chronic stress and poor health due to constant stress, lack of physical activity. A visit to a sauna with a steam room, together with swimming in the pool, always gives excellent health results. Having spent on the construction of a bathhouse once, the family receives a whole complex intended for useful procedures for many years. In addition, the sauna room with a pool becomes a place of quality rest, relaxation and meetings with close friends.
In addition to pleasures, the pool can bring additional costs not only during construction, but also during operation. And also the owner of the house should be aware of some of the disadvantages.
The difficulty of maintaining a pool increases in proportion to its size. The owners can serve a small bowl on their own, but if it is large, then from time to time you will have to resort to the services of specialists.
An open container with water creates a high level of humidity in the room, and this has a bad effect on the entire bath structure, especially if it is made of wood.
Both plumbing and drain communications should be properly connected to the bowl. If a private household is located in an area where there is no sewage system, then it is necessary to provide a drainage system that meets the accepted SanPiN standards.
Stagnant water often has its own microflora, among which there may be dangerous bacteria, and in order to fight them, it is necessary to regularly carry out measures to purify water with special chemical solutions.
If the owners of a private house are not afraid of the listed difficulties, then they can decide to build a hydraulic engineering facility right in their bathhouse.
It is practically impossible to independently calculate the power of the recuperator in the absence of initial data (furnace power, temperature and quantity of outgoing gases per unit time, contact area of the heat exchanger and the chimney metal, the speed of air or water passing through the device). The power of an already installed heat exchanger can be measured.
Roughly it is worth counting on the fact that the heat exchanger on the chimney of a solid fuel stove or fireplace will warm up a couple of small radiators, raise the temperature in the garage, or make the room in the attic, the dressing room in the bathhouse warmer.
The whole truth about sauna ventilation
Does the sauna require ventilation?
What is sauna ventilation
The experience of global manufacturers of sauna equipment in the field of ventilation
What do we know about ventilation now?
Does the sauna require ventilation?
This was our first reaction after we discovered that the valve was closed during the entire procedure.
After analyzing everything, it became clear that in most cases the lack of ventilation cannot be felt, but more on that later.
First, I would like to say about ventilation in general and its basic principles.
- Ventilation is steam: supply and exhaust. An inflow ensures the supply of fresh air, and an exhaust hood is needed to remove the exhaust air. The sum of all the inflows in the building and the sum of all the extracts in the building must match (in cubic meters).
- Ventilation is needed to create an appropriate room microclimate, depending on its purpose. The more pollution is generated in the room, and the more the air in the room is exposed, the more intensively the air must be renewed in it. The air renewal rate is measured either in frequency per hour, or by volume (m3) per hour.
These principles give a partial understanding of what sauna ventilation is, how it should work and how it works.
What is sauna ventilation
- From the point of view of ventilation, a sauna is a temporary residence for several people, in which there is a high temperature and low / high (depending on the type) humidity.
- The presence or absence of ventilation in the sauna can be felt if you are in it continuously for more than 30 minutes.
Also, the speed of the hood can be increased by adding a ventilation valve.
Sauna is a type of room with increased ventilation requirements. High demands mean frequent air changes. For a sauna, this is at least 3 / hour.
For this, the sauna must be provided with an air supply and an extract.
The inflow to the sauna is carried out from the adjacent room. Any room from which it is convenient to organize this inflow will do.
The classic version of the inflow into the sauna is the gap under the door. To do this, use doors without a threshold, which are installed so that the glass sheet rises 4-6 cm from the floor.
Another common option is the inlet behind the oven. With this option, the stove is supplied in the most direct way with fresh air, which circulates the air heated by the stove in the sauna.
Please note that a properly mounted furnace with a remote firebox is a priori equipped with such an inflow (I hope I don’t need to explain why?).
The extractor hood in the sauna removes the exhaust air.
The best option would be to remove the hood into the general outflow system. If this is not possible, take it to a room adjacent to the sauna (you need to understand that warm air will come out, sometimes with high humidity).
To summarize and confirm all of the above, I propose to turn to very authoritative sources, which are the quintessence of knowledge about the construction of saunas and baths, ventilation in them and the correct steam - the instructions of the best manufacturers of sauna stoves. Harvia, EOS, Tylo and Narvi write the most extensively about ventilation.
The experience of global manufacturers of sauna equipment in the field of ventilation
- Supply ventilation should be located at a height of 5-10 cm from the floor behind the stove. The size of the hole depends on the power of the oven - the more power, the larger the hole.
- The exhaust ventilation should be located opposite the oven at the bottom of the wall.
- The inlet and outlet must always be open when the sauna is running.
The Finnish manufacturer is considering two ventilation options - natural (gravitational) and mechanical exhaust (i.e. inflow without induction).
The inlet should be located close to the floor under the oven or behind the oven. Its diameter is Ø50-100 mm. The permanent ventilation outlet should be located as far away from the heater and close to the floor as possible, but it should be higher than the inlet.
The size of the air outlet must be twice the air inlet. You can also additionally position an exhaust outlet to remove moisture from the sauna after vaping under the ceiling or on the ceiling. An alternative to the extra extractor hood is the open sauna door.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation
The inlet must be positioned about 500 mm higher than the heater (Harvia refers to recent research). It is supplied from the street. Hole diameter - Ø50-100 mm. The exhaust outlet should be closer to the floor and should be twice the size of the inlet. It is also possible to extract air through the gap under the door (approx. 50 mm) if there is an extractor hood in the adjacent room.
Harvia also pays attention to the position of the sensor when the air is blown over the heater. It should be no closer than 1000 mm to the hole if it supplies air around the entire perimeter (see figure), or no closer than 500 mm if the air flow is not directed to the sensor.
The frequency of air exchange is 6 times per hour.
- The manufacturer reminds that the ventilation of the sauna must be linked to all ventilation in the building.
- When using mechanical ventilation, locate the inlet next to the heater, close to the ceiling or on the ceiling.
- Do not place the sensor closer than 1 m to the inlet, or closer than 0.
5 m to the directional inlet.
The stove must be positioned as close to the door as possible, preferably on the same wall.
Place the inlet under the stove. The cross section is approximately 125 cm2.
The empty space above the ceiling should not be completely enclosed. It is advisable to locate the vent on the same wall as the entrance to the sauna.
The sauna hood should be located as far away from the heater as possible, preferably diagonally.
The use of mechanical ventilation is not recommended.
What do we know about ventilation now?
The following conclusions can be drawn from the information provided:
- The ventilation in the sauna must be linked to the general ventilation.
- The natural inflow should be close to the heater.
- The natural exhaust must be higher than the inflow, the opening must also be larger.
- The exhaust can be carried out through an adjacent room.
- To ventilate the sauna, you can use the ventilation valve at the ceiling or open the door.
- Mechanical ventilation should only be used with the necessary knowledge. Do not forget about the correct operation of the sensor.
- The air exchange rate should be 3-6 / hour.
Tell us what you know about ventilation, ask your questions and clarify unclear points in the comments.
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